Article 534 of the Lebanese penal code prohibits and punishes any sexual relationships or “any act deemed contrary to the order of nature” (Article 19 2019). This article has been broadly interpreted by the authorities, the courts, and police to target queer people, even though since 2009 several lower courts (and the high appellate court of Mount Lebanon) have rejected prosecution cases based on this colonial-era law. Nevertheless, the number of arrests under this article increases every year (Abi Nader et al. 2021: 3). Many legal actors since 2009 in Lebanon have had difficulty establishing what the “order of nature” is and what runs contrary to it. According to Judge Mounir Suleiman, the first judge who challenged this law in 2009: “Whereas man is part of nature and one of its elements . . . it cannot be said that any practice of his or any behavior of...

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