Amazigh feminist nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) emerged in the new century. They address, among other matters, language, identity, and “ruralness” issues that were sidelined by the mainstream Moroccan feminist movement. After the 20 February Movement (the Moroccan version of the Arab Spring) appeared, these NGOs considerably increased in number and steadily developed a public voice with a clear mission. Although they all promote the Amazigh language and culture, Amazigh feminist NGOs are divided by geographic location, class, ability to interact with larger feminist and human rights NGOs and other organizations, ability to raise funds, and proximity to the makhzan.1

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During the 1990s a vibrant Amazigh civil society emerged with around one thousand NGOs.2 Amazigh identity became a key aspect of Morocco in the new century, and Amazigh activism led to substantial reforms, culminating in the creation of...

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