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Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1984) 8 (4): 743–758.
Published: 01 August 1984
...W. P. Welch This paper investigates the influence of market forces and state regulations on enrollment in prepaid group practices (PGPs)—the dominant form of HMO. Using data at the metropolitan-area level, the paper estimates a lagged-adjustment model in two stages. The first stage estimates...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1987) 12 (4): 723–739.
Published: 01 August 1987
...W. P. Welch There are two types of HMOs: prepaid group practices (PGPs) and individual practice associations (IP As). Because of rapid change in the HMO industry, the academic literature, which is based primarily on data from the 1970s, is dated in several ways. The literature has focused on PGPs...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1984) 9 (1): 103–124.
Published: 01 February 1984
... on the authors’ mail survey investigating the hospitalization policies of prepaid group practices (PGPs) existing in March 1979. The authors’ census of PGPs is supplemented with information from a study by Analysis, Management and Planning, Inc. (AMPI) of all HMO applications (both those of PGPs...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1982) 7 (3): 686–706.
Published: 01 June 1982
... by examining each of these propositions. Can HMOs reduce health care costs? The review of evidence on HMO performance has become a staple of the health services literat~re.~Reviewers have consistently concluded that the prepaid group practice (PGP) form of the HMO does provide health ser- vices...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1982) 7 (1): 45–53.
Published: 01 February 1982
... ball. Most prepaid group practice (PGP) plans require the enrollee to select a new physician when enrolling. Because existing doctor-patient ties are a major factor in the decision to enroll in a PGP, a large fraction of new PGP members will be relatively new in the community...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1999) 24 (5): 957–966.
Published: 01 October 1999
... the prepaid group practice model plans, such as Kaiser and Group Health, as well as the loosely organized individual practice association (IPA) or foundation for medical care models. This umbrella term was needed because prepaid group prac- tice organizations (PGPs) were still unacceptable to organized...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1989) 14 (2): 367–382.
Published: 01 April 1989
.... 1988). Why is it that employees appear to be more satisfied with HMOs than employers do? One possible explanation is the recent proliferation of independent practice as- sociations (IPAs). It may be that these HMOs have not carried on the traditions inherited from prepaid group practice (PGP...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1999) 24 (5): 1045–1049.
Published: 01 October 1999
... University of Michigan Since the early 1970s, policy makers and researchers alike have been eagerly watching and evaluating the growth of so-called managed care plans. Many expected prepaid group practice plans (PGPs), then individ- ual practice associations (IPAs), then preferred provider...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1979) 3 (4): 497–518.
Published: 01 August 1979
... approach has been to divide HMOs into two potentially antagonistic types-the prepaid group practices (PGPs) and the founda- tions for medical care (FMCs), also known as individual practice associa- tions. These two types of prepaid plans may be distinguished by two criteria: (1) locus...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1985) 10 (3): 579–599.
Published: 01 June 1985
... participate in the Medicare program. For years critics of retrospective, cost-based reimbursement had cited the accomplishments of such prepaid group practice (PGP) plans as Kaiser-Perrnanente as evidence of the virtues of prospective pay- ment and had urged Medicare administrators to devise payment...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1986) 10 (4): 659–674.
Published: 01 August 1986
... for hospital bedsize, patient age and sex, and severity of illness (by employing Go- nella’s Disease Staging classification scale). The results show that for similar types of patients, prepaid group practice HMOs (PGPs) exhibited significantly shorter stays, relative to the mean for commercially...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (2010) 35 (4): 643–661.
Published: 01 August 2010
... an intriguing diagnosis of the problem — ­namely, that the conjunction of feeforservice medicine and thirdparty payment embodied all the wrong incentives and thus spelled fiscal doom — ­and an appealing prescription. Ellwood proposed that fed- eral promotion of variations on prepaid group practice (PGP...
Journal Article
J Health Polit Policy Law (1986) 11 (4): 569–583.
Published: 01 December 1986
... principles. Then, as if on cue, Paul Ellwood, a physician and policy analyst, reminded high officials in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare of the virtues of the Kaiser- Permanente health care system and of prepaid group practice plans in general, and explained how PGPs could...