This study uses national data from the American Hospital Association and the National Labor Relations Board in a multivariate framework to assess the impact of various structural factors on union activity in hospitals. The theoretical framework includes both management and union perspectives in evaluating (1) whether the hospital had a signed collective-bargaining contract in 1980; (2) whether a union election had been held; and (3) whether the union won the election. The results indicate that certain structural characteristics (hospital size, ownership, teaching status, and location) have had a significant impact on union activity in hospitals, while other characteristics (third-party reimbursement and area factors) have not. The results also show that prospective reimbursement has a positive impact on union activity.

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