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Evidence from the economics literature is examined with reference to whether prices of dental services tend to equal or exceed production costs, and whether dentists may be characterized as price-takers or price-setters. Ability to generalize from the methods and conceptualization of costs is important in evaluating the evidence. Dentists appear to act as price-takers, but market prices remain greater than production costs. Conditions sufficient to produce a fully competitive result are apparently lacking in the dental services market.