While most essays in this issue find something to praise about the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010, many also find areas of weakness. The essays in this section offer ways to continue to improve on the parts of the bill that, in their view, still need work. Peter D. Jacobson, Laura M. Napiewocki, and Leah A. Voigt call for regulatory reform: designing a sound framework on which to base the creation of rules and methods of enforcement. Mark V. Pauly compares incentive-based approaches to controlling costs to delivery model reforms and argues why investments in the former would be more effective than those in the latter and would also be less risky if failure occurs. Marc A. Rodwin calls for additional “real” coverage reforms so that all Americans would be protected from significant financial decline, if not ruin, when serious illness occurs. Finally, Thomas R. Oliver considers how the ACA moves us closer to achieving the goals of population health.

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