Although leadership is typically seen as coming from the leaders of governments and major institutions, a strong case can be made that concerned citizens first articulate important issues and policies that official leaders then pick up and promote. In a market-based society dominated by large corporations, Hirschman's framework of exit, voice, and loyalty can be used to relate consumer and grassroots movements to markets, when participants believe there is no exit and loyalty (or acquiescence) is not an option. While“voice” is usually applied to the individual or consumer level,this article develops the concept of organized voice and illustrates how it has exhibited leadership in the controversial relations between the biotech and pharmaceutical industries and society as a whole. The essay concludes by urging more research on organized voice as a source of leadership and by outlining some important dimensions for researchers to consider.
No Exit and the Organization of Voice in Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals
Donald W. Light, Ramón Castellblanch, Pablo Arredondo, Deborah Socolar; No Exit and the Organization of Voice in Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals. J Health Polit Policy Law 1 June 2003; 28 (2-3): 473–508. doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/03616878-28-2-3-473
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