Theodore R. Marmor; New York's Blue Cross and Blue Shield, 1934–1990: The Complicated Politics of Nonprofit Regulation. J Health Polit Policy Law 1 August 1991; 16 (4): 761–792. doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/03616878-16-4-761
The story of New York Blue Cross is one of complex interaction with state and federal regulators and also with hospitals, the medical profession, commercial insurers, and the public, who make up the regulatory environment. Negotiation, cooperation, and adaptation among parties whose goals and assumptions were partly parallel characterize the relationships. As we can see from New York Blue Cross's origins and its role in the development and administration of certificate-of-need legislation, Medicare, insurance practice and regulation, and hospital rate setting, this story does not represent the capture of government by a special interest, nor the gradual souring of a public interest organization, nor disinterested and distant government regulation.