This article explores the changing corporate culture of New York's Blue Cross and Blue Shield plan in its first fifty years. As the plan grew, corporate culture evolved over four sequential phases: the plan first had the character of an experiment, then that of a movement, a business, and, most recently, a corporate agglomerate. Accompanying this evolution has been an identity crisis, as the need to adapt to a turbulent environment has challenged the plan's settled understanding of its core values, namely, voluntarism, community, and cooperation.

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