The implementation of state-sponsored voluntary case management programs for public assistance recipients creates provider and recipient recruiting problems that are unique to the state's economic environment, its political climate, its historic relationship with providers, its program goals, and its implementation strategies. This implementation study discusses the factors that influenced the op-erationalization of the Massachusetts managed care program for AFDC families. The issues of provider recruitment and recipient enrollment are examined in relation to the formal program goals of cost containment and access. The operational and bureaucratic problems the state Medicaid staff has experienced in maintaining the program evokes questions of who should administer the programs, who the best types of providers are in light of program goals, and how recipients can be enrolled in a voluntary program.

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