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barbarians

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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 7–33.
Published: 01 April 2020
...Wai-yee Li Abstract There is no fixed categorical term for barbarians in Chinese. Specific groups are identified as “aliens” or “cultural others” through words like Man 蠻, Yi 夷, Rong 戎, and Di 狄, but all four terms can be specific or categorical. It is often said that the us-versus-them formula...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 149–166.
Published: 01 April 2020
..., the protagonist is wed to both the daughter of a boatman and the daughter of a Mongol official. But while this double marriage offers the possibility of a productive overcoming of the distinctions between scholar and merchant and between Chinese and barbarian, the tragic fate of the renxiong forecloses any...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2014) 1 (1-2): 241–261.
Published: 01 November 2014
... of “Chinese” and “barbarians”? How does it define the struggle for supremacy, push for political advantage, and cover up weakness? Does the manipulation of meanings and interpretations indicate anxieties about the power of ritual propriety to correct political failures? Copyright © 2014 by Duke University...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 1–6.
Published: 01 April 2020
.... 643 BCE) makes the case for Qi to help the small central state Xing 邢 fight Di 狄 incursion: “The Rong and the Di [barbarians] are jackals and wolves and cannot be satisfied. The central domains [ zhuxia 諸夏] are close intimates and cannot be abandoned.” 1 In many cases, denigrating comparisons have...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 115–148.
Published: 01 April 2020
... and imagine cultural others, and how the author navigates between an enlarged understanding of the world and the long-standing Sinocentric discourse. I argue that, while the novel does contain a number of chauvinistic expressions, such as “China is ruler and father, the barbarians are subjects and sons” 中國為君為...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 60–86.
Published: 01 April 2020
..., Travels of an Alchemist . The text cited in this article was extracted mostly from this source, with modifications. 3. For instance, it was reprinted in 1903 in the anthology Wangchao fanshu yudi congshu 皇朝藩屬輿地叢書 (Geographic Collectanea of Imperial Dynastic Barbarian Colonies). Shen Yao 沈垚 (1798...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 215–231.
Published: 01 April 2020
... of Heaven to Extinguish the Evil Spirits; Saving the World, and Pacifying the People” 奉天誅妖,救世安民; “Receiving the Mandate of Heaven to Attack the Barbarian” 奉天討胡; and “Saving All Those Who Are Born of and Nourished by Heaven as God's Sons and Daughters; Also Decreeing to Save All the Chinese People Who Did...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 34–59.
Published: 01 April 2020
... as rhetoric to uphold the cultural authority of the Zhou and to curb the power of hegemonic states, such as Qi, Jin, or Chu. Liu Yilong seems to suggest that the Song dynasty will uphold cultural orthodoxy and expel barbarians so that the scholars of Zou and Lu would not feel ashamed. 39. Tian...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2016) 3 (1): 57–84.
Published: 01 April 2016
... Similarly, when she dresses in men's clothes, the language used to describe her attractiveness is also gender ambiguous. So, when Murong Zhu, a non-Chinese barbarian princess, sees Feixiang dressed as a scholar, Zhu describes her as follows: “His spirit is like autumn water, his bones are like ice and jade...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2018) 5 (1): 34–65.
Published: 01 April 2018
..., but in the contemporary context, few, if any, Han officials probably would have regretted the move, because they believed that it was simply beyond the barbarians to finesse the relationship between appearance and substance and that it was best if these guests be spared any shock and puzzlement. For the Han emperor...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2022) 9 (1): 8–46.
Published: 01 April 2022
... . Those who fail to enter through this pass must remain more or less tame barbarians basking in the partial glow that is reflected into the outer border regions.” 4 Mote may well have been deliberately ironic, even erecting in the above passage his own “Great Wall” through his use of the untranslated...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 192–214.
Published: 01 April 2020
... from Manchuria. The outer referred to the lands north of the Pass, and to the south of the Pass lay the so-called inner . Such political and cultural dichotomies as “Chinese and barbarians” ( Huayi 華夷) and “Chinese and foreign” ( Zhongwai 中外) were closely linked with this territorial divide...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (2): 235–267.
Published: 01 November 2020
... decades of his adult life. As the author of a widely read primer of model essays, he praised bagu as a legitimate pedagogical instrument that could reinforce the values or “rules” that distinguished his countrymen from the barbarians who were unceremoniously knocking down and trashing the empire's gates...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2021) 8 (2): 371–398.
Published: 01 November 2021
... to maintain the minority Manchu population. 15 These ritual differences were politically sensitive. Influential Han scholars of the seventeenth century like Wang Fuzhi 王夫之 (1619–1692) considered the Manchus barbarians, morally inferior to the Han people. 16 Qing emperors' edicts about widow chastity...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2016) 3 (2): 448–470.
Published: 01 November 2016
...。 The key to the Southern Seas lost what it could depend on, 南溟鎖鑰失所恃, What a pity the mulberry forests and seas are filled with the floating dust of the barbarians. 可憐桑海揚胡塵。 33 While acknowledging that Hong Kong is already part of the British Empire, Su's phrase “key to the Southern Seas...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2016) 3 (2): 203–214.
Published: 01 November 2016
... of the barbarian invasion and dynastic contingency, and as such he opened up a space for debate over personal integrity versus political power. Now, in the new era, Chen found himself trapped in an environment in which everything was subject to censorship and mutual surveillance. He could turn his thoughts...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2018) 5 (1): 66–94.
Published: 01 April 2018
... the Eighth of the Kaiyuan reign proves it. Since then, the sounds of Zheng and Wei 65 have grown more popular by the day, the popular distortions ever greater. There are already Barbarian Bodhisattva , Spring Light Beautiful , Sand Chicken Melody , Water Clock , Dreaming of Jiangnan...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2014) 1 (1-2): 29–64.
Published: 01 November 2014
... the hierarchical structure of “Chinese” and “barbarians” often heralded as quintessentially and immutably “Chinese.” If it were not for the liberal inclusion of diasporic writers in both of Yang's anthologies, 74 we would have few glimpses of the volume and variety of their song corpus. 75 Accordingly, if we...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2016) 3 (1): 85–107.
Published: 01 April 2016
...), in Huang, Yi ren zhuan , 291 . 64. Quan Song shi , 14:9556 . 63. Wang Anshi 王安石, “Qi” 棋 (Go), Quan Song shi , 10:6684 . 62. Xu Wei 徐渭 (1520–1593), “Hu shi” 胡市 (Barbarian Marketplace), in Du, Ming shi xuan , 429 . 61. Ma Yu 馬鈺 (1123–1183), “Man ting fang kan weiqi” 滿庭芳·看圍棋...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2022) 9 (1): 79–104.
Published: 01 April 2022
... of its discussion of the power of the word: she argues that “the translation of the written Chinese character yi [夷] at the time of the Opium War led to the invention of the super-sign yi/barbarian by the British, who believed that the use of the character was intended to insult the foreigner...