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Mongol Empire

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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 60–86.
Published: 01 April 2020
... of the Mongol Empire, however, is different from that between Europe and its colonies. At the turn of the thirteenth century, China's cultural and political instability was profound: political authority could be used to enhance cultural currency, while appropriation of the dominant cultural tradition served...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2014) 1 (1-2): 29–64.
Published: 01 November 2014
... Empire . Bellingham : Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University , 2007 . Buell, Paul D. “ Mongol Empire and Turkicization: The Evidence of Food and Foodways. ” In The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy , edited by Reuven Amitai-Preiss and David O. Morgan , 200 – 223...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2023) 10 (2): 461–486.
Published: 01 November 2023
... of the Mongol Yuan Empire—known in Chinese as Emperor Renzong of the Yuan 元仁宗—decreed the reestablishment of the civil service examination in the following year. Notably, the Yuan examination required the candidates of “Chinese” backgrounds (that is, hanren 漢人 and nanren 南人) to write an official document...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2021) 8 (1): 163–202.
Published: 01 April 2021
... referring to the relocation of Mongols, Uyghurs, Muslims, Jurchen, and others from Central Asia to the Mongol Empire. 39 Diasporic and Chinese authors have both left a rich corpus of sanqu songs. Textual and paratextual sources provide information to understand the breadth and composition...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2019) 6 (2): 359–382.
Published: 01 November 2019
... to relate to the world of practice but also to fashion a self in relation to others, including Manchus, Han Chinese, Mongols, and other culturally and linguistically disparate peoples. They grew up speaking multiple languages, competent in writing and reading in at least Manchu and Chinese. Keenly aware...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2023) 10 (2): 336–378.
Published: 01 November 2023
..., refers to an ancient province that covers today's northern Hebei. In the Tang context, Youzhou was a region of the northeastern command of the empire and the power base of An Lushan. 86 In Gong Kai's time, Youzhou referred to the Mongol regime's capital Dadu and its vicinity. 87 In the final years...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2016) 3 (1): 26–56.
Published: 01 April 2016
..., the cultural splendor that held him in its thrall was not limited to that of China ( Zhonghua ) alone. In several of the poems about friends and colleagues he singles out Mongols, Manchus, and other non-Han residents of the city with whom he maintained respectful, amicable, and in a few cases intensely...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2023) 10 (1): 195–220.
Published: 01 April 2023
...衰之化,振乆敝之俗,是可以傳矣 ( NZYY 10.17). It is noteworthy that Fu's political criticism of the social order that allowed such criminal activity is directed specifically at the Song and Ming dynasties, which were conquered by Mongol and Manchu invaders, a timely choice for a scholar writing directly after...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 232–234.
Published: 01 April 2020
... China. He is currently writing his dissertation, “Writing Empire: Culture, Politics, and the Representation of Others in the Mongol-Yuan Dynasty,” which explores how the concept of “China” took shape through the creation of cultural others in various Yuan dynasty texts. His latest publications include...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2021) 8 (1): 203–235.
Published: 01 April 2021
... of literati experiments with mixed-register writing. Having moved to Beijing in 1296, Xue became a student at the Imperial Academy ( guozixue 國子學). Founded with imperial patronage in 1271 by Xu Heng, the academy initially comprised one hundred students: fifty Mongols and fifty residents of North China...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2016) 3 (2): 448–470.
Published: 01 November 2016
... of these points, see Jian, “Songmo erdi nanqian nianlu kao,” 144–45 . 21. Translator's note: The Ciyuan Palace 慈元殿 was located near the coastal town of Yamen 崖門, the site of the famous naval battle that served as the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongols of the Yuan dynasty...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2021) 8 (2): 371–398.
Published: 01 November 2021
... of Manchu and Mongol consorts that Chinese women can match them for courage. At the same time, Fu Yijian deliberately includes women who fought on behalf of conquest dynasties such as the Khitan Liao and Jurchen Jin alongside Chinese women who fought against Khitan invaders. By juxtaposing their biographies...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2021) 8 (1): 31–58.
Published: 01 April 2021
..., or Bumpkins and Numskulls in San-chü and Elsewhere .” In Songs from Xanadu: Studies in Mongol-Dynasty Song-Poetry (San-chʻü) , 107 – 24 . Ann Arbor : Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan , 1983 . Ebrey, Patricia . “ Taking Out the Grand Carriage: Imperial Spectacle and the Visual...
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Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 34–59.
Published: 01 April 2020
...), the compiler of Song shu 宋書 (History of the Song Dynasty), noted that the thirty years when Liu Yilong presided as the ruler were the “utmost prosperous period of the Song dynasty” 宋世之極盛. Shen, Song shu , 92.2261 . 1. The Xianbei was a group of non-Chinese people who spoke a proto-Mongolic...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 87–114.
Published: 01 April 2020
... invasion, by the Mongols). The Jurchen invasion, which happened when Hong Mai was three years old, was a dynastic calamity and a national trauma. The Song's inability to ever recapture its northern heartland, not to mention frequent incursions by their northern enemy in the following decades, cast a pall...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2021) 8 (1): 59–88.
Published: 01 April 2021
... of employment during the disordered age of alien Mongol rule. 40. See Zhan, “Ming Hongwu shiqi zhengjian zhidu kaolun.” 41. Zhong, Lu gui bu , 195 . The note says, “A native of Pingyang, supervisor of Confucian schools” 平陽人,儒學提舉; ibid., 114. 42. Ibid., 194. The note says “A native...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 115–148.
Published: 01 April 2020
... with the Chinese since preimperial times, Luo Maodeng develops another set of cultural signs around the Muslims who began contact with China during the Tang dynasty and settled in China in large numbers during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. The center of this focus is none other than the official leader...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2017) 4 (1): 19–55.
Published: 01 April 2017
...-fated effort to repel the Mongol invasion and later as the headmaster of a neo-Confucian academy, Zhao Lin clearly identified with Xiang Ziyin's position as both a defender and keeper of memory for the same lost kingdom. 69 Previously, the Song emperor Gaozong wrote two large characters...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (1): 7–33.
Published: 01 April 2020
... yanjiu 東夷文化研究 ( A Study of the Culture of the Eastern Yi ). Jinan : Qi Lu shushe , 2007 . Pines, Yuri . “ Beasts or Humans .” In Mongols Turks, and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World , edited by Reuven Amitai and Michal Biran , 59 – 102 . Leiden : Brill , 2005...
Journal Article
Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture (2020) 7 (2): 235–267.
Published: 01 November 2020
...-ranking Mongol Bojun 伯葰 (Begiyun, ?–1859) was executed for a bribe taken from an examinee by one of his servants. 78 If there was to be hope to restore order across society, conformity to such standards was especially crucial in literati endeavors, where their claim to social preeminence was based...