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sacrifice

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Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2015) 47 (2): 271–305.
Published: 01 June 2015
... more and more an end in itself, justifying any sacrifice on its behalf, even that of his own reputation, for example during the Nazi rule in Austria, 1938-45. This paper tells the story of this strange academic life and its repercussions for the evolution of Austrian economics. Correspondence may...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2010) 42 (3): 403–424.
Published: 01 September 2010
... was a measure of the happiness of laborers in terms of their “sacrifice” to obtain the necessaries and conveniences of life. However, although the welfare origins of the measure are discernable in The Wealth of Nations , it is argued that the real measure had come to be used by Smith for purposes that were...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (1): 1–25.
Published: 01 March 2005
... combination of expenditures against the marginal sacrifice caused by the total taxation which each of these combinations would entail.8 Pantaleoni is seemingly aware that many readers would find such an assertion a bit odd, given the usual framework in Italy at that time for discussing questions of public...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1986) 18 (4): 701–703.
Published: 01 November 1986
... of these theories he notes that “although the problem of quantifying and measuring utility creates havoc for most theories of welfare economics, it does not affect the clarity of the minimal sacrifice theory.” Indeed he argues that “the opposite is true; it is because the minimal sacrifice theory is so...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1979) 11 (1): 171–172.
Published: 01 March 1979
... that dominates the industrial and political systems of all the advanced countries. Apologists for both socialism and capitalism have argued that sacrifices of traditional values-the elements of the pre-capitalist gemeinschaft , as well as liberal values such as individual autonomy, an elemental...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (Suppl_1): 314–332.
Published: 01 December 2005
.... Within the Anglo-Saxon orientation, fiscal theorizing proceeds inde- pendently of political regimes and fiscal institutions. Taxes are treated as sacrifices regardless of the regime within which they are extracted. A fiscal scholar might well acknowledge that regimes differ in how much attention...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2014) 46 (2): 307–331.
Published: 01 June 2014
... is the judgment of Eugenio Masè-Dari (1897, 239; cf. 394n2), who lauds the “great impartiality” of the treatise and stresses how Guicciardini provides 11. It is worth emphasizing that Ricca-Salerno uses the expression “an equal sacrifice” un( sagrificio eguale) instead of Guicciardini’s “discomfort...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1970) 2 (2): 432–440.
Published: 01 June 1970
... ’ ’ states that if man ’s technological knowledge increases rapidly enough, he can form instruments of a given order indefi- nitely.8 To form an instrument implies the sacrifice of some amount of present goods for the production of some greater amount of future goods, The amount of future...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1991) 23 (S1): 119–130.
Published: 01 December 1991
... are need for uniformity, pity and cruelty, self-sacrifice for the good of others, social ranking, asceticism. Concrete frivolous examples are fads, fashions, bandwagons, and, more generally, peer-group pres- sures. More important are willingness to sacrifice self-interest for the public good...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1985) 17 (3): 419–454.
Published: 01 September 1985
.... A second problem in Dupuit’s approach is the tacit assumption that utility is a measurable quantity. He regarded the true measure of the utility of an object as the “maximum sacrifice expressed in money that one is willing to make in order to procure it” (Dupuit 1849b,177). Indeed, rela- tive...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2004) 36 (2): 387–400.
Published: 01 June 2004
... of the disutility of labor. As Green (1894, 223) states, “The subjective feel- ings of different individuals are not easily compared, but the economic opportunities which a man sacrifices by pursuing a certain course of ac- tion are more capable of objective measurement.” Frank Knight (1921) takes particular...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1977) 9 (4): 595–599.
Published: 01 November 1977
... Mirabeau “that his specific social commit- ment could only be realized by the sacrifice of its historical form and the translation of its moral force into a new economic language’’ (p. 166). To- gether they worked out theories of the state as inseparable from society and of absolute...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1970) 2 (1): 1–65.
Published: 01 March 1970
... of the whole economic process than any of their prede- cessors, never managed to deal adequately with the problems of time and of the two sets of equilibria with which they had concerned them- selves. On the one hand, they tried to work out an equilibrium between real sacrifices and benefits...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2001) 33 (2): 315–344.
Published: 01 June 2001
.... Bonaccorsi di Patti / Ferrara and Value Theory 323 cost is not given by the monetary expense of the producer, but by the sacrifice that the consumer has to make to obtain the good he desires, or other goods that he considers equivalent in satisfaction. The subjective nature of utility and cost explains...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1991) 23 (S1): 131–142.
Published: 01 December 1991
... of the nation's portfolio of assets held abroad might have to be liquidated. Apart from war, none of these steps would be desirable. They clearly imposed heavy burdens on the community. Most of the "real economic cost" of war would be felt immediately: sacrifices in the form of reduced satisfactions from...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2013) 45 (1): 123–148.
Published: 01 March 2013
... of sacrifice is viable (491n). He con- cluded that permanent incomes should bear a higher tax burden than temporary ones. Such reasoning does not seem decisive, however, because it justifies the exemption of savings only for providing for children and old age, whereas Mill’s real idea was that all...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1990) 22 (3): 443–463.
Published: 01 September 1990
... to value were displacement costs. Increasing and decreasing returns were best defined in terms of displacement costs. “Decreasingreturns exist where the increase of one product is to be had only at the sacrifice of proportionately greater quantities of other products.” This implies (although...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2013) 45 (1): 99–121.
Published: 01 March 2013
... Viti’s. See Einaudi 1965, 183. Eusepi and Wagner / Antonio de Viti de Marco  107 be pursued only through taxation as described by the various sacrifice theories. These theories of taxes as unchosen impositions stood outside de Viti’s frame of reference, for that frame...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1974) 6 (1): 95–108.
Published: 01 March 1974
... which causes anxiety is Cost. To have our time or attention taken up against our preference-to make a sacrifice of any kind-a feeling of mortification-painful suspense-fear-suffering or endur- ing anything against our inclination, is here considered Cost.”6 Clearly, Warren’s system has...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1991) 23 (4): 713–730.
Published: 01 November 1991
... important redistributive feature of modern taxation: progressive income tax. l5 His reasoning was based on the principle that the sacrifices of the taxpayers should be equal: “Equality of taxation . . . as a maxim of politics, means equality of sac- rifice. It means apportioning the contribution...