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military expenditure

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Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2020) 52 (5): 895–924.
Published: 01 October 2020
... regarding their military expenditures. For example, previous attempts at disarmament had failed in part because the communist governments had refused to provide details of their existing forces. In 1959, Nikita Khrushchev appealed to the UN General Assembly for complete disarmament within four years. A ten...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1975) 7 (1): 36–42.
Published: 01 March 1975
...; therefore, total employment will rise exactly by the employment at the public works. This line of reasoning was already set out convincingly by Ricardo in the chapter “On Machinery” of his Principles in the section dealing with the impact on employment of military expenditure financed by taxes...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1991) 23 (S1): 119–130.
Published: 01 December 1991
... (1935, § 2305, p. 1638). Manifestations are budgetary deficits, inflation, and reduction in military expenditures relative to "social" ex- penditures. More and more governments are relying on economic pros- perity to create the revenues needed to meet increasing expenditures: Modern governments commonly...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2020) 52 (4): 795–797.
Published: 01 August 2020
... by Pareto on specific issues were of some importance. Pareto was particularly opposed to colonial politics and excessive mili- tary spending. In 1889 he was vice-president of the Florence committee for peace and signed the manifesto against military expenditure published by the Italian commit- tees...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1991) 23 (S1): 37–60.
Published: 01 December 1991
... through Cobden 1867. The Economics of Defense, 1848-1914 41 Table 1. British Military Expenditure, Prices, and Wages, 1850-1915 Expenditurea (in millions of pounds) Pricesb Money Wagesc Year Army Navy Total (1867-77 = 100) (1850 = 1(0) 1850 8.9 6.2 15.1 77 100 1855 13.8 13.7 27.5 101 116 1860 14.1 10.8...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (2): 381–382.
Published: 01 June 2005
... an economy toward its equilibrium growth path. In support he cites econometric studies that have found mean reversion in GDP. He argues that it was these endoge- nous factors rather than the inflow of gold from Europe or military expenditures that ended the depression. A telling point he makes is to ask...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (2): 382–385.
Published: 01 June 2005
... an economy toward its equilibrium growth path. In support he cites econometric studies that have found mean reversion in GDP. He argues that it was these endoge- nous factors rather than the inflow of gold from Europe or military expenditures that ended the depression. A telling point he makes is to ask...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (2): 386–391.
Published: 01 June 2005
... an economy toward its equilibrium growth path. In support he cites econometric studies that have found mean reversion in GDP. He argues that it was these endoge- nous factors rather than the inflow of gold from Europe or military expenditures that ended the depression. A telling point he makes is to ask...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (2): 391–392.
Published: 01 June 2005
... an economy toward its equilibrium growth path. In support he cites econometric studies that have found mean reversion in GDP. He argues that it was these endoge- nous factors rather than the inflow of gold from Europe or military expenditures that ended the depression. A telling point he makes is to ask...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (2): 393–395.
Published: 01 June 2005
... found mean reversion in GDP. He argues that it was these endoge- nous factors rather than the inflow of gold from Europe or military expenditures that ended the depression. A telling point he makes is to ask whether anyone thinks that had it not been for the rise of Hitler (and the resulting gold...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (2): 395–397.
Published: 01 June 2005
... found mean reversion in GDP. He argues that it was these endoge- nous factors rather than the inflow of gold from Europe or military expenditures that ended the depression. A telling point he makes is to ask whether anyone thinks that had it not been for the rise of Hitler (and the resulting gold...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2001) 33 (1): 51–69.
Published: 01 March 2001
...: thosewhoremainfaithfulwhenthefinancialrewardsarenegligibleshould be counted as the ones who truly love the king. The second main reason identified in the Speculum for the overex- tension of the royal treasury, and the consequent oppression of subjects, is unwarranted expenditure on military supplies, especially war horses. William adopts a rhetorical...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1985) 17 (4): 591–618.
Published: 01 November 1985
..., for example, military jobs, investments, or activities, but include those in education or housing-depending on who uses the term. In general, how the term ‘productive’ (or any equivalent) is used today-or whether it is used at all-is not merely a throwback to the terminological disputes of earlier...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1991) 23 (S1): 191–225.
Published: 01 December 1991
... of millions squandered on the purchase and building of splendid war- ships, and who declared that those expenditures were useless if no one knew how to manipulate such modern vessels, if there were no people with the necessary technical knowledge to utilise the latest achievements of military engineering...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1969) 1 (1): 85–100.
Published: 01 March 1969
... and justice, he was no champion of military expenditures to enlarge the company’s territorial domain. As his testimony before the Select Committee in 1831-1832 reveals, he was convinced that direct British administration of the “Native States” would enor- mously enhance the welfare...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2001) 33 (4): 717–741.
Published: 01 November 2001
... members of parliament to cooperate, emphasizing that continuance of a policy of balanced budgets would be an important signal both to the Danish population and to observers abroad (Bramsnæs 1931). In reality the cuts were rather limited. A proposed reduction in military expenditure equal to one...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2009) 41 (3): 491–517.
Published: 01 September 2009
... in the existing system of power. Indirect taxes were the norm in the Greek political system, and foreign lending (before 1843 and after 1879) was used to supplement fi nancing for government projects. Moreover, governments after 1855 failed to bal- ance the budget. Growing expenditures were met...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1993) 25 (4): 739–744.
Published: 01 November 1993
... low wages for the military as being unjust, degrading, and inexpedient. “Let govern- ment . . . go to market, and enlist for a term of years” at the going wage for unskilled labor: morale would improve and “mutiny and de- sertion” diminish. “Let us hasten to exalt the military character...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1975) 7 (2): 137–155.
Published: 01 June 1975
... not include human costs (2.376.000 dead. seriously wounded. and missing members of the military forces and civilians attached thereto; 668.000 othcr civilians; 8,754.000 persons rendered homeless and destitute). Neither do they include losses of warships. aircraft. and other military materials...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1973) 5 (2): 375–398.
Published: 01 June 1973
... the capitalized-earnings approach to human capital evaluation. Neither author netted out consumption expenditures. In addition, both assumed that all the individuals whose lives were destroyed had the same ex- pected yearly earnings and life expectancy, and although Giffen cor- rected somewhat...