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middle class

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Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2020) 52 (3): 561–587.
Published: 01 June 2020
... defined “middle class.” This article unpacks this story of inclusionary development by considering the controversies surrounding the production and circulation of large numbers, and how such controversies sustained the technopolitics of Brazil’s “new middle class.” I draw on multisited ethnography...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1999) 31 (4): 675–697.
Published: 01 November 1999
... is composed of those who must purchase grain at mar- ket prices, but who do not resell it to the poor at half price. The first three groups have been part of the modern discussion (Stigler [1959] 1965; McCloskey [1985 and the need for the middle class becomes clear in our discussion below. Each group...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1981) 13 (4): 851–854.
Published: 01 November 1981
..., a volume which “summed up the debates and traditions” discussed in her volume. Berg is not just interested in the historical process of the machine technol- ogy during the period of the first Kondratieff (1781-1842), but with the emer- gence of the new ‘scientific’ view of the middle class...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2000) 32 (1): 168–169.
Published: 01 March 2000
... is to encourage the pursuit of “artificial wants,” the great stimulus to prudence and foresight. Alison’s class analysis is somewhat con- tradictory: in places he celebrates the middle classes and disparages the aristocracy (though he appears to include the small...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (3): 509–534.
Published: 01 September 2005
... independent, having been born into a fam- ily that was comfortable, and later, wealthy. He was not a landowning aristocrat, but the son of a successful middle-class financier. Using his personal wealth, he was able to finance publications, political causes, and business ventures. As his own personal venture...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1989) 21 (3): 503–520.
Published: 01 September 1989
... 00 18-2702/89/$1.50 Adam Smith and dependent social relations Michael Perelman Introduction Adam Smith’s work represents a strong ideological attack on the social and economic behavior of all groups, except the particular strata of the middle class...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1992) 24 (1): 31–59.
Published: 01 March 1992
... in the history of the trade union movement, a theory he never articulated. It claims that Mill was, by 1869, con- sciously involved in the development of a reformist alliance designed to transcend classes, and absorb elements of middle-class’ and labor thought. Mill tackled middle-class opinion...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2000) 32 (4): 1049–1050.
Published: 01 November 2000
... and supply side. So where is the demand for art to come from? Fry suggests three possible sources: the working class, the middle class, and the state. Nothing can be expected of the first: the crowd simply “pays those who procure it the greatest illusionsand it battles against every truth because...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1990) 22 (4): 764–767.
Published: 01 November 1990
... and the disappearance of the middle class,” which discusses the reasons set forth by Marx for the continuation of the middle class of independent craftsmen , priests , shop keepers, physicians , teachers, domes tic and public servants, etc., even if the existence of this class obscures the essen- tial...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1974) 6 (3): 261–277.
Published: 01 September 1974
... and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which, it was hoped, would make possible a new era of peace and prosperity among nations. Keynes’s Cambridge and Bloomsbury friends questioned and chal- lenged the manners and morals inherited from middle-class Victorian England...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1997) 29 (2): 275–294.
Published: 01 June 1997
... consumption. Mr. Malthus is a most powerful ally of the Chancellor of the Exchequer” (195 1-55, 21433). 288 History of Political Economy 29:2 (1997) rentiers (the “middle class,” in Malthus’s terminology), as distinguished from the class of landlord.26According to Malthus, rentiers tend to spend...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (3): 455–482.
Published: 01 September 2005
... for a source of cultural authority can appear partic- ularly resonant to those attempting to find some firm ground for cultural policies today in a climate of cultural relativism. Arnold’s Cultural Capital Born in 1822, Matthew Arnold was the product of a successful middle- class family. When Matthew...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1979) 11 (2): 312–315.
Published: 01 June 1979
... precise nature and significance can be expressed in a variety of ways. On one level, it was simply a by-product of the increasing specialization and division of labour among the educated cadres. Beyond this, it reflected the egotistic middle-class drive for status and power; and it represented...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1985) 17 (1): 156–157.
Published: 01 March 1985
... a monograph was published showing a very high rate of infant mortality, particularly affecting babies put out to wet nurses. The economists had been urging the working class to practice ‘moral restraint’ and to seek salvation by imitating the behavior patterns of the middle class. However...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1996) 28 (4): 559–581.
Published: 01 November 1996
...). Ekelund and Walker / Mill on Income Tax 569 Table 1 Population Estimates by Class: United Kingdom (1867) Upper and Middle Classes With Independent Incomes 2,759,000 Dependent 3,859,000 6,6 I 8,000 Manual Labor Class Earning Wages...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2021) 53 (2): 355–360.
Published: 01 April 2021
... differences across liberal and socialist perspectives, this period was nonetheless characterized by certain shared concerns, with several important nineteenth-century, middle-class female writers defending the importance, for women s emancipation, of at least three elements. The first was edu- cation...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1973) 5 (2): 359–374.
Published: 01 June 1973
... we not been told, ever so often, that liberal politics and classical economics were complementary parts of the ideology of the middle class? We have. But the Whigs themselves seem not to have known this. Of course they did support the middle class and economics at times, but more often...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2013) 45 (4): 693–746.
Published: 01 November 2013
... of an urban middle class as the journals and newspapers surveyed here. Aldrich / Explanations for the Cost of Living 697 mostly from the rapidly increasing money supply that was ultimately caused by rising gold production.7 The temptation for economists is simply to reject...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1999) 31 (Supplement): 157–184.
Published: 01 December 1999
.... This chapter examines how these noneconomists engaged these economic questions and how well they succeeded with their explanations. The art critics came from the same comfortable upper-middle-class backgrounds as the marginal revolutionaries, and they were educated in the same prominent universities...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1985) 17 (3): 455–460.
Published: 01 September 1985
... for consumption have not the desire, since their material needs are amply satisfied, whilst those who have the desire have not the power. . . . The upper and a large section of the middle classes, who own an excessive proportion of goods that are produced, do not de- sire themselves...