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Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1996) 28 (1): 1–25.
Published: 01 March 1996
... of inequality” in society. Undoubtedly, Smith’s major emphasis is on justice in individual ex- changes, or commutativejustice. Comprehensive adherence to the canons of commutative justice through a system of natural liberty provides the best guarantee of the emergence of benevolent distribution...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1977) 9 (4): 504–521.
Published: 01 November 1977
... or reciprocal justice as a principle governing social relation- ships. Reciprocal justice does not govern the distribution of common goods among members of a community; nor does it provide the ap- propriate rule for dealing with “involuntary commutations’’ such as theft or assault. However...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2005) 37 (Suppl_1): 91–119.
Published: 01 December 2005
... be- tween justice, understood as commutative justice, and utility, understood as the common good, and, second, the relation between commutative justice and distributive justice, understood as equity. His general posi- tion on both of these relationships is not difficult to discern. He states it clearly...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1996) 28 (3): 329–357.
Published: 01 September 1996
... has been put into the pecuniary form. The bulk of what has been written deals with single phases of the process, such as the growth of monetary systems, commutation of labor services into money dues, the rise of money rev- enue systems and public debts, the beginnings of banking, the invention...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2010) 42 (3): 495–519.
Published: 01 September 2010
... Justice is one of the four cardinal virtues and is defined as “the constant and perpetual will of rendering to each his due” (Lugo [1642] 1868, 1, 1). The Scholastic doctors, following Aquinas, divided particular justice into two categories: distributive and commutative.7 The first “distributes...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1999) 31 (4): 775–776.
Published: 01 November 1999
... natural lawyers” (96). Given the benevolent model, the market process leads to a “just price,” so the invisible hand results in distributive justice. Commutative and distributive justice are generally complementary, but where conflicts occur Smith favors distributive justice if the issue...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2006) 38 (1): 151–174.
Published: 01 March 2006
... understanding of the rela- tionship between commutative and distributive justice, concepts inher- 3. Certainly the concept of the living wage was made popular before Ryanʼs time by means of the eight-hour workday movement in the 1880s. The living-wage ideal was turned into a call for a minimum wage...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1996) 28 (3): 317–328.
Published: 01 September 1996
... introduction of money transactions via the commutation of dues in kind and labor dues, and with the rise of estate management for revenue instead of for subsistence. These developments occurred first on royal manors due to the Crown’s need for money to fi- Rutherford / Money Economy and Modem...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2006) 38 (3): 437–471.
Published: 01 September 2006
... is listed as injustice in the commutative sense of justice (Winch 1978, 98–99).11 9. This is consistent with Rothschildʼs (1992a) intriguing fi ndings that Smithʼs arguments had been used by supporters of the Poor Laws in the 1790 debate but were then expropriated by the opponents of those laws...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2006) 38 (2): 269–289.
Published: 01 June 2006
... by a proportion. Like all medieval Aristotelians, Buridan only dis- tinguished between distributive justice, expressed by a geometric propor- tion, and commutative justice, expressed by an arithmetic proportion.29 An example of the former kind of justice, drawn from the economic sphere, is the distribution...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2002) 34 (4): 818–819.
Published: 01 November 2002
... economic concerns. If this were so, why not go for commutation of tithes (145)? Sometimes the attempt to introduce philosophy goes too far and ends by ob- fuscating the economics. In relation to Berkeley’s views on money as a “ticket” or “counter,” Caffentzis provides an elaborate link...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1997) 29 (1): 83–116.
Published: 01 March 1997
..., and role among the members of society were acknowledged and reflected in the requirements of both distributive and commutative justice (Spengler 1968, 224-27). These differences defined the critical proportionality that governed rela- tions of justice. The primary end of the social status...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1986) 18 (3): 365–382.
Published: 01 September 1986
... it is so because labor is the circumstance which the parties and the spectator will ultimately agree is the basis for a fair exchange-fair in the negative sense of estab- lishing commutative justice; i.e., no party has been injured in the ex- change. Smith grounds exchange value on a spectator...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1999) 31 (4): 777–779.
Published: 01 November 1999
...?-1824) of Gonville and Caius, Cambridge (second wran- gler 1814, also a medical student and Inner Temple barrister), attempted, in an 1822 pamphlet (praised by Whewell) on the economic effects of taxes on raw produce and of the commutation of tithes, a mathematical expression of the determination...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1997) 29 (4): 685–689.
Published: 01 November 1997
... of justice and property. It is a just price in his sense of justice as commutative justice, and his concept of cost bears a close resemblance to the concept of injury. Consequently, I feel it is a defensible position to assert that the theory of the natural price is wholly compatible with Smith’s...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1980) 12 (4): 638–642.
Published: 01 November 1980
... of argument and textual evidence, Langholm strongly reaffirms: “In economic exchange regulated according to commutative justice, there is never a question of personal difference per se; any difference relevant to the terms of exchange must rest in the products. This principle was accepted by all...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1982) 14 (1): 141–145.
Published: 01 March 1982
... not invoked. Had Gordon invoked it, he might have avoided the rather dubious conclusion (p. 89) that the classic distinction between commutative and distrib- utive justice corresponds to the distinction between procedural and end-state conceptions of justice. Democratic political philosophy, Gordon...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1978) 10 (1): 46–113.
Published: 01 March 1978
.... They recognized in some measure that virtue had social implications, but in the main they confined their discussion of these implications to repeated emphasis on the priority of the com- mon good over the individual and to scattered and occasional insights on almsgiving and questions of commutative...
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (2000) 32 (4): 857–888.
Published: 01 November 2000
Journal Article
History of Political Economy (1970) 2 (2): 205–224.
Published: 01 June 1970
... head we can add to the obvious air and water pollutions noise pollution, food pollution, peo- ple pollution-overpopulation, overcrowding, housing shortages-and time pollution-commuting, queueing, and perhaps boredom. Some of these pollutions are traceable to the coincidence of afauence...