Capitalism is often assumed to have been invented in the Anglosphere. Writings by Hume and Smith have been named as cornerstones in the making of capitalism and modern economic knowledge. But Smith’s and the other Enlightenment Scots’ works built on a commercial tradition that had been manifest in Anglo-Saxon economics since the sixteenth century or earlier. Moreover, this tradition of thinking about commercial society became quite widespread and in the seventeenth and eighteenth century extended to the entire European continent where it has become commonly known, in its manifold regional and national variants, under the general term Cameralism

The usual genealogy of capitalist political economy, foundations of which were established by Marx (Capital, Vol. I), starts with William Petty, Richard Cantillon, Turgot and then winds down a well-known line from Adam Smith to David Ricardo, including John Stuart Mill, and Marx himself. The contributions made by continental Cameralists to the shaping of the political economy of modern capitalism on the other hand have tended to be overlooked. The present paper discusses the wider epistemic vantage points of the present special issue, some basic assumptions, as well as the broad contributions made by subsequent papers to the study of Cameralism not only as a near pan-European economic discourse during the early modern period, but also how different authors from a Cameralist vantage point and spectrum contributed to rise of modern economic analysis and modern political economies of capitalism.

I would like to thank Carl Wennerlind and Kevin Hoover for useful comments.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

References

Acemoglu, Daron; Robinson, James.
2012
.
Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty
.
New York
:
Crown
.
Albritton Jonsson, Fredrik.
2015
. “
Climate Change and the Retreat of the Atlantic: The Cameralist Context of Pehr Kalm’s Voyage to North America 1748–51
.”
William and Mary Quarterly
72
, no.
1
:
99
126
.
Appleby, Joyce.
1976
. “
Ideology and Theory: The Tension Between Political and Economic Liberalism in Seventeenth-Century England
.”
American Historical Review
81
, no.
3
:
499
515
.
Appleby, Joyce.
2011
.
The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism
.
New York
:
Norton
.
Appelbaum, Binyamin.
2016
. “
On Trade, Donald Trump Breaks with 200 Years of Economic Orthodoxy
.”
New York Times
.
March
3
. .
Beckert, Jens.
2016
.
Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations and Capitalist Dynamics
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Bog, Ingomar.
1981
. “
Ist die Kameralistik eine untergegangene Wissenschaft?
Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte
4
, no.
1–2
:
61
72
.
Burkhardt, Johannes; Priddat, Birger P., eds.
2009
.
Geschichte der Ökonomie
.
Frankfurt-on-Main
:
Deutscher Klassiker Verlag
.
Cardoso, José Luís; Cunha, Alexandre Mendes.
2012
. “
Enlightened Reforms and Economic Discourse in the Portuguese-Brazilian Empire (1750–1808)
.”
History of Political Economy
44
, no.
4
:
619
41
.
Dittrich, Erhard.
1974
.
Die deutschen und österreichischen Kameralisten
.
Darmstadt
:
Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft
.
Ekelund, Robert B.; Tollison, Robert D..
1981
.
Mercantilism as a Rent-Seeking Society: Economic Regulation in Historical Perspective
.
College Station
:
Texas A and M University Press
Elmslie, Bruce.
2015
. “
Early English Mercantilists and the Support of Liberal Institutions
.”
History of Political Economy
47
, no.
3
:
419
48
.
Faccarello, Gilbert; Kurz, Heinz D., eds.
2016
.
Handbook on the History of Eco-nomic Analysis
. Vol.
1
.
Northampton
:
Edward Elgar
.
Grampp, William D.
1993
. “
An Appreciation of Mercantilism
.” In
Mercantilist Eco-nomics
, edited by Magnusson, Lars,
59
85
.
Boston
:
Kluwer
.
Grampp, William D.
1952
. “
The Liberal Elements in English Mercantilism
.”
Quarterly Journal of Economics
66
, no.
4
:
465
501
.
Hagemann, Harald; Seiter, Stephan; Wendler, Eugen, eds.
2018
.
The Economic Thought of Friedrich List
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Hirschman, Albert O.
2013
.
The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism before its Triumph
. New ed.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Hont, Istvan.
2005
.
Jealousy of Trade: International Competition and the Nation-State in Historical Perspective
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Belknap/Harvard University Press
.
Humpert, Magdalene.
1939
.
Bibliographie der Kameralwissenschaften
.
Köln
:
Schroeder
.
Isenmann, Moritz, ed.
2014
.
Merkantilismus. Wiederaufnahme einer Debatte
.
Stuttgart
:
Franz Steiner
.
Keynes, John Maynard.
1936
.
The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money
.
London
:
Palgrave Macmillan
Kocka, Jürgen.
2016
.
Capitalism: A Short History
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Kocka, Jürgen; van der Linden, Marcel, eds.
2018
.
Capitalism: The Reemergence of a Historical Concept
.
London
:
Bloomsbury
.
Kolev, Stefan.
2017
.
Neoliberale Staatsverständnisse im Vergleich
. 2nd ed.
Vienna
:
De Gruyter Oldenbourg
.
Koselleck, Reinhart.
1994
.
Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Magnusson, Lars.
2019
. “
Welfare in Cameralist Discourse in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
.” In
Nokkala and Miller 2019
:
23
46
.
Mazzucato, Mariana.
2018
.
The Value of Everything: Making and Taking in the Global Economy
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Malynes, Gerard de.
1629
.
Consuetud, Vel Lex Mercatoria, Or the Ancient Law-Merchant
.
London
. .
Mokyr, Joel.
2009
.
The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain, 1700–1850
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Mokyr, Joel.
2017
.
A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Muller, Jerry Z.
2011
.
The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Modern European Thought
.
New York
:
Knopf
.
Myers, Milton L.
1985
.
The Soul of Modern Economic Man
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Nokkala, Ere.
2019
.
From Natural Law to Political Economy: J. H. G. von Justi on State, Commerce and International Order
.
Münster
:
LIT
.
Nokkala, Ere; Miller, Nicholas B., eds.
2019
.
Cameralism and the Enlightenment: Happiness, Governance and Reform in Transnational Perspective
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
North, Douglass C.; Wallis, John Joseph; Weingast, Barry R..
2009
.
Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History
.
New York
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Outram, Dorinda.
2013
.
The Enlightenment
. 3rd ed.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Perelman, Michael.
2004
.
The Invention of Capitalism: Classical Political Economy and the Secret History of Primitive Accumulation
.
London
:
Duke University Press
.
Pincus, Steve.
2009
.
1688: The First Modern Revolution
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Reinert, Erik S.
2007
.
How Rich Countries Got Rich … And Why Poor Countries Stay Poor
.
New York
:
Carroll and Graf
.
Reinert, Erik S.; Carpenter, Ken.
2016
. “
German Language Economic Bestsellers before 1850, With Two Chapters on a Common Reference Point of Cameralism and Mercantilism
.” In
Rössner 2016a
:
26
53
.
Reinert, Erik S.; Rössner, Philipp Robinson.
2016
. “
Cameralism and the German Tradition of Development Economics
.” In
Elgar Handbook of Alternative Theo-ries of Economic Development
, edited by Reinert, Erik S.; Ghosh, Jayati; Kattel, Rainer,
63
86
.
Northampton, MA
:
Edward Elgar
.
Reinert, Sophus A.
2020
. “
Northern Lights: Political Economy and the Terroir of the Norwegian Enlightenment
.”
Journal of Modern History
92
, no.
1
:
76
115
Roover, Raymond de, ed.
1949
.
Gresham on Foreign Exchange: An Essay on Early English Mercantilism with the Text of Sir Thomas Gresham’s Memorandum for the Understanding of the Exchange
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Rössner, Philipp Robinson, ed.
2016a
.
Economic Growth and the Origins of Modern Political Economy: Economic Reasons of State, 1500–2000
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Rössner, Philipp Robinson.
2016b
. “
New Inroads into Well-Known Territory? On the Virtues of Rediscovering Pre-Classical Political Economy
.” In
Rössner 2016a
:
3
24
.
Rüstow, Alexander.
2009
.
Die Religion der Marktwirtschaft
.
Münster
:
LIT
.
Sandmo, Agnar.
2011
.
Economics Evolving: A History of Economic Thought
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Schabas, Margaret; Wennerlind, Carl.
2020
.
A Philosopher’s Economist: Hume and the Rise of Capitalism
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Schefold, Bertram.
1998
. “
Der Nachklang der historischen Schule in Deutschland zwischen dem Ende des zweiten Weltkriegs und dem Anfang der sechziger Jahre
.” In
Erkenntnisgewinne, Erkenntnisverluste. Kontinuitäten und Diskontinuitäten in den Wirtschafts-, Rechtsund Sozialwissenschaften zwischen den 20er und 50er Jahren
, edited by Acham, Karl; Nörr, Knut Wolfgang; Schefold, Bertram,
31
70
.
Stuttgart
:
Franz Steiner
.
Schefold, Bertram, ed.
2009
.
(Kaspar Klock) Tractatus juridico-politico-polemico-historicus de aerario, sive censu per honesta media absque divexatione populi licite conficiendo, libri duo
.
New York
:
Olms-Weidmann
.
Schwarzkopf, Stefan, ed.
2019
.
Routledge Handbook of Economic Theology
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Seppel, Marten; Tribe, Keith, eds.
2017
.
Cameralism in Practice State Adminis-tration and Economy in Early Modern Europe
.
Suffolk
:
Boydell Press
.
Siedentop, Larry.
2015
.
Inventing the Individual: The Origins of Western Liberalism
.
London
:
Penguin
.
Stern, Philip; Wennerlind, Carl, eds.
2014
.
Mercantilism Reimagined: Political Economy in Early Modern Britain and Its Empire
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Tribe, Keith.
1993
. “
Polizei, Staat und die Staatswissenschaften bei J. H. G. von Justi
.” In
Vademecum zu einem Klassiker des Kameralismus: [Kommentarband zur Faksimile-Ausgabe der 1756 erschienenen Erstausgabe von Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi: Grundsätze der Policey-Wissenschaft]
, edited by Rieter, Heinz; Schefold, Bertram,
107
40
.
Düsseldorf
:
Verlag Wirtschaft und Finanzen
.
Tribe, Keith.
2008
. “
Cameralism and the Sciences of the State
.” In
The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought
, edited by Goldie, Mark; Wokler, Robert,
525
46
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Tribe, Keith,
2015
.
The Economy of the Word: Language, History, and Economics
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Wakefield, Andre.
2009
.
The Disordered Police State: German Cameralism as Science and Practice
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.