The article depicts a controversy among German-speaking members of the Mont Pelerin Society in 1955. It is based on a previously unknown exchange of letters between Wilhelm Röpke, Alexander Rüstow, Friedrich Hayek, and Ludwig Mises, among others. Sparked by an article in a publication edited by Voldkmar Muthesius, the discussion revolved around different approaches to competition policy as well as the German ordoliberals’ relationship with National Socialism. We argue that the controversy exposes fundamental differences between schools of thought present within the Mont Pelerin Society during the 1950s.

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