This essay deals with some key Italian contributions to econometrics in the twentieth century. It opens with some notes on the need to define and measure each dimension of the manifold notion of well-being. While considering the convinced supporters of the methodological adoption of tools devised by economics and statistics, the central part of the essay focuses on Corrado Gini (1884–1965). He was Italy's leading econometrician and the main reference of the international network of econometricians until the 1940s. Other Italian members of the newly formed Econometric Society are also cited, specifically Luigi Amoroso and Umberto Ricci, because of the relevance of their contribution. The essay concludes by referring to Gini's rejection of econometrics, which coincided with the appearance of a new generation of social scientists whose aim was to combine economics, statistics, and mathematics.

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