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Journal Article
Hispanic American Historical Review (1963) 43 (3): 475.
Published: 01 August 1963
... deals with a different communist party of Bolivia—Bolivia has three of them (PIR, POR, Partido Comunista). The PIR means Partido de la Izquierda Revolucionaria, which was founded in 1940 and came to an end in 1952. It was a powerful party of leftist persuasion without openly admitting...
Journal Article
Hispanic American Historical Review (1970) 50 (4): 802–804.
Published: 01 November 1970
... protective umbrella given to radicals by the military socialism of David Toro and Germán Busch, the cooption of the radical PIR by the oligarchy after the fall of Gualberto Villarroel, and above all the strain placed on the decisive middle classes by the inflation and economic stagnation of the sexenio...
Journal Article
Hispanic American Historical Review (2017) 97 (2): 259–296.
Published: 01 May 2017
... below. By expanding the time frame of analysis, Jorge Dandler showed that the peasants in the valleys of Cochabamba were politically organized into unions before the revolution. This led Dandler to argue that left-leaning political activists for parties such as the Party of the Revolutionary Left (PIR...
Journal Article
Hispanic American Historical Review (1993) 73 (3): 523–526.
Published: 01 August 1993
..., and PIR), which refused to support the outward-oriented development strategy the state insisted on maintaining. As Gallo recognizes, the state’s failure to bring these groups into line culminated in the most dramatic political event of twentieth-century Bolivia, the MNR Revolution of 1952. Presumably, had...
Journal Article
Hispanic American Historical Review (1972) 52 (1): 26–54.
Published: 01 February 1972
... Nazi influence in the MNR may have been fomented by members of the international Communist movement. José Antonio Arce, the leader of the Partido de Izquierda Revolucionaria (PIR), which represented the Bolivian Stalinists, publicly sought participation in the first Villarroel cabinet, a move promoted...
Journal Article
Hispanic American Historical Review (1967) 47 (2): 166–184.
Published: 01 May 1967
... was the representative of utopian nationalism, who marched with the counter-revolution at his side, like an ominous shadow, at times [even] misrepresenting the revolution.” Ibid ., 216-217. 50 For the background of the organization of the powerful PIR, see Frente de Izquierda Boliviano, ¡Hacia la unidad de las...