Preparing the Manuscript

Type the manuscript on one side of the page only and double-space throughout, including footnotes and quotations. Leave margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 inch) on all sides of every page. Place notes (also double-spaced) on separate pages following the text. Three copies of each article should be submitted.

Tables. Follow instructions presented in the University of Chicago Press’ Chicago Manual of Style (13th edition). Tables will generally be set from a different font and should be typed on separate pages, preceding the endnotes. The title should follow this form: TABLE 1: Spanish Emigration to the Indies, 1493-1599. Indicate in the margin of the text the correct location of the table.

Figures. Professional-quality, camera-ready copy is needed. The main requirements are: plain, unlined, white paper; India ink; use of dots and dashes, rather than color, to distinguish between lines; captions and legends professionally lettered. An HAHR page has the effective size of 11 cm wide by 18.5 cm long. Artwork and lettering reproduce most clearly if drawn double-size for reduction by the printer. The finished product should not be folded, nor the back written on except with soft lead pencil or, preferably, blue pencil. Indicate in the margin of the text the correct location and number of each figure, and furnish figure titles typed on a separate page.

Style Rules of Special Note

In general, the form of material published in the HAHR will follow the latest editions of the University of Chicago Press’ Manual of Style and Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Authors should pay particular attention to the forms used in capitalization of historical periods, geographical regions, and instructions. For example, only capitalize institutions when referring to a specific one: a national bank, but the National Bank of Argentina, or better yet, Banco Nacional de la Argentina, giving the title in the original language. Always lowercase the following terms: blacks, church, creole, crown, conquest, discovery, and white. Capitalize Marxist, Western Hemisphere, and Indians. Personalistic political factions such as Rosistas or Villistas should be capitalized and not italicized. When in doubt about capitalization, however, the rule of thumb is to use lowercase.

In titles of books and articles in Spanish or Portuguese, capitalize only the first word and proper nouns. In titles of series, journals, and newspapers, however, capitalize all major words, e.g., Gaceta Ministerial de Chile and El Tiempo. For the correct spelling and accenting of all geographical words, follow Webster’s New Geographical Dictionary.

An exception to the Chicago Manual: Spell out all numbers under n unless they are located in the same paragraph with other numbers larger than n that refer to the same category. Percentages should be expressed in figures, e.g., 10 percent. When making reference to subdivisions of a book, use, e.g., volume 4, chapter 17, and part one.

The acronym HAHR is to be used throughout text and endnotes when this journal is mentioned or cited. The terms Latin American and Hispanic American are not hyphenated, even when used adjectivally, unless they appear hyphenated in the title of a book or article, in the name of an institution, or in a quotation. A comma precedes the conjunction joining the last item in a series of three or more.

Dates in text should follow these examples:

  • September 4, 1951

  • September 1951

  • 1880s

  • seventeenth-century spelling persisted into the eighteenth century late nineteenth-century conditions


Several general rules should be kept in mind.

“Op. cit.” is never used. Instead, use author’s last name and short title, whether or not more than one work by the same author is cited. Ibid, and passim are not italicized. Include the place of publication and publishers name.

Omit the abbreviations p. and pp. unless the page number immediately follows another number (as in the date of a newspaper citation or in certain archival references). Words to be abbreviated in endnotes include ed., vol., chap., leg., exp., fol., no., diss., ser., and n. Abbreviate the months with more than four letters for dates in endnotes, e.g, Sept. 4, 1951. Page citations should appear as 445-87, not 445-487.

The first line of each note should be indented three spaces. The note number is not a superscript.

The following are examples of note citation form:

Book citation, first entry:

1. Raúl P. Saba, Political Development and Democracy (New York: Westview Press, 1975), 122-23.

Book citation, subsequent entry:

2. Saba, Political Development, 122-23.

Chapter in an edited book:

3. E. Bradford Bums, “Cultures in Conflict: The Implication of Modernization in Nineteenth-Century Latin America,” in Elites, Masses, and Modernization in Latin America, 1850-1930, ed. Virginia Bernhard (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979), 22-23.

Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation:

4. Gabriel J. Haslip, “Crime and the Administration of Justice in Colonial Mexico City, 1696-1810” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1980), 170.

Multivolume citation:

5. Félix Garzón Maceda, La medicina en Córdoba, 3 vols. (Buenos Aires: Talleres Gráficos Rodrígues Giles, 1916-17), 2: 323-39.

Periodicals and Newspapers:

When citing articles from periodicals, the volume and issue numbers appear in arabic numerals joined by a colon and followed by the date in parentheses, then the page numbers.

6. Antonine Tibesar, O.F.M., “The Alternativa: Spanish-Creole Relations in Seventeenth-Century Peru,” The Americas 11:3 (Jan. 1955), 229-82.

When citing newspapers, give the date and (in parentheses) the city of publication, unless it is evident from the text. Give the page number if possible but omit the column number, as well as the volume or issue number.

7. La Prensa (Managua), Oct. 10, 1946, p. 7.


Identify the person interviewed, place, and date.

Archival Material:

First, identify the specific document. Titles of unpublished works are not italicized. Avoid unnecessary detail. Usually ellipses can be used to avoid lengthy titles in archival endnotes. Consider the date of the document as part of its title. For a letter or dispatch: give the name of the writer (complete only on first reference), name of addressee, place of writing, and date. In the case of a government document filed by an administrative unit, it is more important to cite the office held by the correspondent than to give the officeholder’s name.

Second, give the location of the document. Proceed from the larger to the smaller and more specific indications. Thus:

  1. Name of archive in language of country and (on first citation only) location of the archive

  2. Section or subdivision of the archive

  3. Volume or other equivalent such as legajo, using arabic, not roman, numerals Recto and verso references are not usually necessary; however, when needed, use roman lowercase without intervening space or punctuation; e. g., fol. 459V. Archives cited more than once should be abbreviated, usually with initials without period (except that U.S. always appears with periods).

Examples of first citation of archival material:

8. Domingo Faustino Sarmiento to Juan Pujol, Buenos Aires, May 22, 1860, Archivo General de la Nación, Buenos Aires, Archivo del General Justo José de Urquiza (hereafter cited as AGN, Urquiza), leg. 67.

9. Lefebre de Bécourt to minister of foreign affairs, Mexico City, Sept. 23, 1861, Archives du Département des Affaires Etrangères, Paris (hereafter cited as AAE), Correspondence Politique (hereafter cited as CP), vol. 38, fol. 231.

Examples of same material upon subsequent citation:

10. Sarmiento to Pujol, Buenos Aires, May 22, 1860, AGN, Urquiza, leg. 67.

11. Lefebre de Bécourt to minister of foreign affairs, Mexico City, Sept. 23, 1861, AAE, CP, vol. 38, fol. 231.

If various archives are cited frequently, the first note may read as follows:

This article is based on material consulted in the following Spanish archives: Archivo General de Indias, Seville; Archivo General de Simancas; and Archivo Histórico Nacional, Madrid (abbreviated hereafter as AGI, AGS, and AHN, respectively).

Italicized Words

Generally, all foreign words are italicized throughout. Do not italicize proper names such as Casa del Obrero Mundial. Do not use italics for words that are found in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Authors may be surprised at the number of Spanish and Portuguese words included in it, e. g., alcalde, audiencia, barrio, caciquismo, cédula, compadrazgo, comunidades, conquistador, conto, corregidor, cenote, criollo, cruzado, estancieros, fazenda, fundo, hermandad, insurrectos, maguey, manta, maravedí, mayordomo, mita, pulque, quinta, reales, reis, repartimiento, síndico, tienda, zambo.

In addition, the HAHR considers the following words anglicized: agregado, alcabala, alvará, cámara, casta, consulado, crioulo, dona, doña, fidalgo, fuero, hacendados, hidalguía, juez, juiz, lavrador, legajo, machismo, mayorazgo, mercedes, mestizaje, morador, moreno, municipio, municipio, oidor, ouvidor, pampas, pardo, peão, peninsulares, porteños, reconquista, relação, senhor de engenho, tomo, vecino, visita, visitador, zona da mata.