preparing the manuscript

Type the manuscript on one side of page only and double space throughout, including footnotes and quotations. Leave margins of at least 2. 5 cm on all sides of every page. Place footnotes (double-spaced) on separate sheets following the text. Three copies of each article should be submitted.

Tables. Follow instructions presented in the University of Chicago Press’s Manual of Style. Tables will generally be set from a different font and should be typed on separate paper, following the footnotes. The title should follow this form: TABLE I: The Army of Peru, 1760 and 1776. Indicate in the margin of the text the correct location of the table.

Figures. Professional quality, camera-ready copy is needed. The main requirements are: plain, unlined, white paper; India ink; use of dots and dashes, rather than color, to distinguish between lines; captions and legends professionally lettered. An HAHR page has the effective size of 11 cm wide by 18. 5 cm long. Artwork and lettering reproduce most clearly if drawn double size for reduction by the printer. The finished product should not be folded, nor the back written on except with soft lead pencil. Indicate in the margin of the text the correct location of the figure, and furnish figure titles typed on separate paper.

style rules of special note

In general, the form of material published in the HAHR will follow the latest editions of the University of Chicago Press’s Manual of Style and Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Prospective authors should particularly note the forms used in capitalization of historical periods, geographical regions, and institutions. For example, only capitalize institutions when referring to a specific one: a national bank, but the National Bank of Argentina, or better yet, Banco National de la Argentina, giving the title in the original language. Always lower case blacks, church, creole, crown, conquest, discovery, and white. Capitalize Marxist, Western Hemisphere, and Indians. Personalistic political factions such as Rosistas or Villistas should be capitalized and not italicized. When in doubt about capitalization, however, the rule of thumb is: don’t.

Write out all numbers under 11 unless they are located in the same paragraph with other numbers larger than 11 that refer to the same category. Percentages should be numerical, e. g., 10 percent. In the text, with reference to subdivisions of a book, use volume IV, chapter 17, and part one.

The acronym HAHR is to be used throughout text and footnotes when this review is mentioned or cited. Latin American and Hispanic American are not hyphenated, even though used adjectivally, unless they are hyphenated in the title of a book or article, in the name of an institution, or in a quotation. A comma precedes the conjunction joining the last item in a series of three or more. In titles of books and articles in Spanish or Portuguese, capitalize only the first word and names of persons and places. In titles of series, journals, and newspapers, however, capitalize all major words, e. g., Gaceta Ministerial de Chile and El Tiempo. For the correct spelling and accenting of all geographical words, follow Webster’s New Geographical Dictionary. Dates in text should follow these examples:

  • September 4, 1951

  • September 1951

  • 1880s

  • seventeenth-century spelling persisted into the eighteenth century

  • In September 1951,


Several general rules should be noted. “Op. cit.” is never used. Instead, use authors last name and short title, whether or not more than one work by the same author is cited. Ibid. and passim are not italicized. Omit the names of publishers from footnote references. Also omit the abbreviations “p.” and “pp.” unless the page numbers immediately follow another number (as in the date of a newspaper citation or in certain archival references). Words to be abbreviated in footnotes include ed., vol., leg., exp., fol., no., diss., and n. Abbreviate the months with more than four letters for dates in footnotes, e. g., Sept. 4, 1951. Page citations should appear as pp. 445-487, not 445-87.

The first line of each note should be indented three spaces. The accompanying number is not raised. The following are examples of footnote citation form:

Book citation, first entry:

1. Herbert L. Matthews, Revolution in Cuba: An Essay in Understanding (New York, 1975). 122-123.

Book citation, subsequent entry:

2. Matthews, Revolution in Cuba, 122-123.

Chapter in an edited book:

3. Robert C. West, “Placer Mining and African Labor” in Ann M. Pescatello, ed., The African in Latin America (New York, 1975), 98-105.

Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation:

4. Charles W. Bergquist, “Coffee and Conflict in Colombia, 1886-1910” (Ph. D. diss., Stanford University, 1979), 170.

Multivolume citation:

5. Fabián de Fonseca and Carlos de Urrutia, Historia general de real hacienda, 6 vols. (Mexico City, 1845-53), II, 323-339.

Periodicals and Newspapers. When citing articles from periodicals, the volume and issue numbers appear in arabic numerals joined by a colon and followed by the date in parentheses, then page numbers.


6. Antonine Tibesar, O. F. M., “The Alternativa: Spanish-Creole Relations in Seventeenth-Century Peru,” The Americas, 11: 3 (Jan. 1955), 229-282.

When citing newspapers, give the date and (in parentheses) the city of publication, unless it is evident from the text. Give page number if possible but omit column number, as well as volume or issue number.


7. La Prensa (Managua), Oct. 10, 1946, p. 7.

Interviews. Identify person interviewed, place, and date.

Archival Footnotes. First, identify the specific document. Titles of unpublished works are not italicized. Avoid unnecessary detail. Usually ellipses can be used to avoid lengthy titles in archival footnotes. Consider the date of the document as part of its title. For a letter or dispatch: give name of writer (complete only on first reference), name of addressee, place of writing, date. In the case of governmental documentation that is filed by an administrative unit, it is more important to cite the office held by the correspondent than to give the officeholder’s name.

Second, give the location of the document. Proceed from the larger to the smaller and more specific indications. Thus, 1) name of archive in language of country, and—on first citation only—location of the archive; 2) section or subdivision of the archive; 3) volume or other equivalent such as legajo, using arabic, not roman, numerals. Recto and verso references are not usually necessary; however, when needed, use roman lowercase without intervening space or punctuation, e. g., fol. 459v. Archives cited more than once should be abbreviated, usually with initials without period (except that U. S. always appears with periods).

Examples of first citation (archival footnoting):

8. Domingo Faustino Sarmiento to Juan Pujol, Buenos Aires, May 22, 1860, Archivo General de la Nación, Buenos Aires, Archivo del General Justo José de Urquiza (hereafter cited as AGN, Urquiza), leg. 67.

9. Lefebre de Bécourt to minister of foreign affairs, Mexico City, Sept. 23, 1861, Archives du Departement des Affaires Etrangères, Paris (hereafter cited as AAE), Correspondence Politique (hereafter cited as CP), vol. 38, fol. 231.

Examples of same material upon subsequent citation:

10. Sarmiento to Pujol, Buenos Aires, May 22, 1860, AGN, Urquiza, leg. 67.

11. Lefebre de Bécourt to min. of for. affairs, Mexico City, Sept. 23, 1861, AAE, CP, vol. 38, fol. 231.

If various archives are cited frequently, the first note may read as follows:

1. This article is based on materials consulted in the following Spanish archives: Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Archivo General de Simancas, and Archivo Histórico Nacional, Madrid (abbreviated hereafter as AGI, AGS, and AHN, respectively).

italicized words

With a few exceptions, all foreign words are italicized throughout. Do not italicize proper names such as Casa del Obrero Mundial. Use no italics for words found in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Authors may be surprised at the number of Spanish and Portuguese words included in it, e. g., alcalde, audiencia, barrio, caciquismo, cédula, compadrazgo, comunidades, conquistador, conto, corregidor, cenote, criollo, cruzado, estancieros, fazenda, fundo, hermandad, insurrectos, maguey, manta, maravedí, mayordomo, mita, pulque, quinta, reales, reís, repartimiento, síndico, tienda, zambo.

In addition to those in Webster’s Third, the HAHR considers the following words anglicized: agregado, alcabala, alvará, cámara, casta, consulado, crioulo, dona, doña, fidalgo, fuero, hidalguía, juez, juiz, lavrador, legajo, machismo, mayorazgo, mercedes, mestizaje, morador, moreno, municipio, municipio, oidor, ouvidor, pardo, peão, peninsulares, porteños, reconquista, relação, senhor de engenho, tomo, vecino, visita, visitador, zona da mata.