Throughout the colonial period, in both urban and rural areas, the Spanish government periodically ordered censuses, or “house counts,” as a basis for tax, tribute, labor, or military assessments. The best of these contain detailed demographic, economic, and social data, the analysis of which permits an evaluation of the components of Latin American society and their interrelationships. In connection with his study of the family in Uruguay, Apolant has carefully transcribed two of these censuses, taken in Montevideo in 1750 and 1772-73, adding indices to enable the researcher to locate rapidly individual households in either or both censuses. Analysis of the second document, more detailed than the first, yields valuable material regarding social structure, economic activities, military affiliations, geographic and racial origins, and other characteristics of the residents of early Montevideo. Such information, particularly when supplemented by similar data from other regions, could illuminate the nature and development of the city in Latin America. Additional publications of this kind would be welcome.