There are two sides to this book although the title suggests only one. Certainly the book contains valuable material on the social consequences of industrialization in Latin America. The reader should also watch, however, for a revealing commentary on the impact of sociology not only in the study of Latin America but also on Latin American intellectual life itself.

This collection of studies was prepared by Professor Kahl for a seminar taught in Mexico in 1961-1962. The purpose of the author was to bring together, in Spanish, a set of readings that would illustrate the use of sociological research in the analysis of social problems associated with industrialization in Latin America. Articles were selected primarily on the basis of their pedagogic utility and methodological rigor. Hence, while one reviews it primarily from the point of view of the student of Latin America, the author also intended a much needed contribution to the instructional materials available to the teacher of advanced social science courses in Latin America.

The four themes stressed in the book include the impact of industrialization on demographic change, both in terms of population mobility and growth; on the occupational structure of the working force; on the system of social classes; and on social and political integration of the Latin American nations. The limitations of the book are primarily due to the fragmentary nature of Latin American sociological research. Available studies pertain to only a handful of Latin American nations, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil predominating. It is surprising to note that a work on Latin American industrialization makes absolutely no mention of the business community, the attitudes and activities of entrepreneurs, and the problems of foreign investment. Apparently in the division of academic labor such matters are the domain of economics rather than sociology.

Despite its title, this volume ought to be as interesting to the intellectual and social historian as to the student of economic development, for it is actually a document for the study of a new intellectual movement in Latin America, that of sociological research. The intellectual historian might be interested in comparing this movement to other currents of philosophy and ideology that have affected Latin America, such as liberalism, positivism, and Marxism. Kahl’s book suggests the international character of the movement—North Americans, Europeans, and Latin Americans operating from the same premises with similar methodologies and research concerns. One might wish to inquire into the impact of this new “ideology” on earlier ones, as illustrated by the essay of Dillon Soares examining and rejecting Marxist propositions through sociological analysis.

Kahl’s careful selection enables one to identify many of the pioneers of Latin American sociological research. A wonderfully perceptive and gently iconoclastic prologue by Pablo González Casanova sets the stage for such an exploration into the history of ideas. He turns sociological analysis on the Latin American sociologist, noting the tendency of some Latin American scholars to reject North American sociological technique as a foreign influence, “unsuited to Latin American culture,” while others make of sociology virtually a new metaphysic. If one bears in mind that Kahl intended no comprehensive treatise on Latin American industrialization and uses the book for its materials on the social consequences of industrialization or on the status of sociological research in Latin America, he will not be disappointed.