With these two works Ecuador commemorated the centennial of Gual’s death. Born in Caracas, he was one of the outstanding leaders in the early years of the independence movement, chiefly at Cartagena, where he was elected governor. Later he was a deputy at the Cúcuta Congress and occupied for a short time the portfolio of Hacienda. But his main services to Colombia were in the field of foreign relations, in particular as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Colombian delegate at Panama and Tacubaya. In later life he returned to Venezuela, where he came to occupy, for a short time, the Presidency of the Republic.

But Ecuador remembers Gual in her own right. He was the Colombian negotiator of the all-important Guayaquil Treaty of 1829 which, from a strictly legal point-of-view, settled the Peru-Ecuador boundary dispute. Later he was sent to England as Ecuadorian Minister, and in 1840 Gual used this opportunity to negotiate at Madrid Ecuador’s recognition by Spain as well as a commerical treaty.

When Gual was exiled from Venezuela in 1861 by Páez, García Moreno offered him asylum and a pension in Ecuador. Four months after his arrival, Gual died in Guayaquil, on May 6, 1862. General Juan José Flores and other dignitaries of the Ecuadorian government were present at his solemn funeral. For unknown reasons in 1920 his earthly remains were taken to Colombia where they now rest in the Chapel of Saint Elisabeth of Hungary in the Cathedral of Bogotá, in company of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada and Antonio Nariño.

Of the two publications here reviewed, the second one, by a Professor of the University of Guayaquil, is more sketchy, but it reproduces the full text of the two treaties between Ecuador and Spain negotiated by Gual. Tobar Donoso’s work is especially commendable as an important addition to the author’s previous publications on Ecuador’s international relations. In particular, he indicates that the Guayaquil Treaty of 1829 was based on the principle of mutual concessions: greater Colombia ceded half of Jaén Province for Peru’s cession of half of Mainas Province. Tobar also reproduces a number of documents. The Dutch observer at the Tacubaya meeting mentioned as “coronel Van Veer” was, I believe, General Verveer, later Plenipotentiary of the Netherlands in Central America.