This is a reprint of a small classic in Mexican Indian studies, first published in 1953. El pueblo del sol, which has appeared in both English and Italian translation, is itself a revision and popularization of Caso’s La religión de los aztecas (1936). It is generally considered to be the best short treatment of Aztec religion that we have.
Aztec religion was polytheistic, with a pantheon of deities of defined characteristics and a complex of magical, impersonal forces. Local gods were incorporated and subordinated to the Aztec tribal god, Huitzilopochtli. The famous assertions of monotheism by Nezahualcoyotl of Texcoco were intellectual and unpopular. The creation legends and the traits of particular gods are described in some detail and illustrated (by Miguel Covarrubias) after codex paintings. There are sections on calendrical ritual and priestly organization. Aztec religion is analyzed as a fundamental native value governing Indian attitudes toward work, life, and society, in some degree, even to the present time.