The recent appearance of two books on the Armada makes comparison inevitable. Professor Mattingly’s scholarly treatment is comprehensive in its European outlook and its wide range of sources, but somewhat less full on the details of naval armament and combat. Professor Lewis, on the other hand, is an authority on the gunnery and tactics of this period; and his book, handsomely produced and well illustrated, appears appropriately in the British Battles Series. He emphasizes the change of policy in Spanish naval administration between 1586 and 1588; he is explicit on the contrasting aims of armament in the two fleets; he goes into detail about the manoeuvres of the several English commanders; and he uses expert medical evidence to examine the heavy toll taken by disease. He challenges Professor Mattingly on the number of ships lost by Spain off the Irish coast, although the two do not differ greatly on total losses. He passes lightly over some incidents the evidence for which might bear closer analysis: for example, the explosion on the San Salvador, Drake’s mysterious “ghost ships,” and the famous game of bowls. His claim that the fireships off Calais took Medina Sidonia by surprise does not seem fully in accord with the evidence; and his whole treatment of the Spanish commander displays the traditional contempt now seriously challenged. Drake can do no wrong, but the aberrations of other English sailors are not minimized; and the Queen herself, despite some exclamatory tributes, comes in for severe criticism. The book is probably justified by its treatment of those technical matters on which the author is an expert. Its value is lessened by the absence of precise reference to authorities.