A collaboration between two senior historians and longtime observers of Brazilian affairs, Brazil, 1964–1985 is a brief history of the country under dictatorship that focuses on the military regime's economic, social, and institutional reforms. The authors synthesize recent Brazilian scholarship and compellingly argue that the generals and their civilian allies implemented “a significant modernizing transformation in the Brazilian economy” that “left the country with the largest industrial establishment in Latin America and an agricultural sector that would eventually become a dominant world player” (p. 106). Moreover, the regime “significantly moved Brazil toward the universalization of education, pensions, and health care” (p. 138). Although the authors do not say so explicitly, their work provocatively implies that there was considerable continuity between the dictatorship and subsequent democratic regimes, including the social reformist Partido dos Trabalhadores governments of 2003–16. More conventionally, the authors argue that...

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