This smart book deserves a wide readership. It contains much of value for scholars interested in immigration to Latin America, the challenges of dealing with hyphenated citizens, and the persistence of multilingual spaces. Indeed, Frederik Schulze challenges us to rethink Latin Americans' relations with foreign actors.

At the heart of his study are the German Brazilians who by the 1930s numbered in the hundreds of thousands, if we count only the immigrants, and well over a million if we include their descendants. They began arriving in Brazil early in the nineteenth century, but the largest waves of immigration came after World War I. Those people became the subject of a set of intersecting discourses about Germans, Germanness, and German Brazilians, which predated the foundation of the German nation-state in 1871 and continued across the political ruptures that recast that state between the...

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