Julia Gaffield has undertaken a significant research project. Her efforts to examine the first years of Haitian independence in the nineteenth century and Haiti's entrance into the Atlantic world required her to conduct research in five different languages in the archives of eight countries: Haiti, France, Jamaica, England, the United States, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Spain. Based on this impressive research, she makes considerable headway in unraveling the complex story about the international relations of Haiti after its revolution, the subsequent defeat of Toussaint Louverture in 1802, and the reestablishment of Haitian rule under Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Nevertheless, Dessalines's declaration of independence on January 1, 1804, did not attract recognition by Britain, France, other European nations, or the United States. Gaffield examines the efforts taken under Dessalines and his successors to obtain such recognition, and she finds actions that could be considered close...

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