This book is exhaustively researched in archival and secondary sources. Alfonso Quiroz offers a fresh methodological analysis of Peruvian history that could also apply to other “developing countries.” He combines strong narrative with econometric calculations. Public corruption exists in all countries, but some societies are more successful than others in curtailing improbity. Constant vigilance is required. Corruption has negative socioeconomic consequences that affect economic development. Peruvian corruption has its roots in the patrimonial colonial society and is closely linked to the patron-client system (patronazgo). Under patronazgo, a group benefits itself via the patron. In Peru and Latin America, patronazgo and corruption are linked to the executive branch of the government: viceroys, caudillos, presidents, and dictators. Under patronazgo flourished networks of politicians and entrepreneurs who used the state apparatuses to traffic in all sorts of illegal activities for profit. Bureaucratic corruption...

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