Three figures define Peru’s leftist political landscape in the first half of the twentieth century. The anarchist Manuel González Prada, seared by Peru’s defeat in the War of the Pacific, became one of the country’s most outspoken critics. After his death in 1918, his mantle was picked up by José Carlos Mariátegui, who outlined an unorthodox Peruvian socialism, and the charismatic Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, who founded Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), the country’s most important political party. Adding to an extensive literature on these three foundational figures, Chang-Rodríguez offers a thorough summary of their thinking on religion, politics, and indigenismo. After an introductory chapter on Peru’s nineteenth-century economic and political history, he sketches these three figures’ biographies and analyzes and assesses the influence of each man’s thought, arguing that while both Mariátegui and Haya built on González Prada’s ideas, only Haya converted them into political action....

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