The last several decades have seen growth in the number of studies of missions on the frontiers of Spanish America. Most relate the history of missions established during the colonial period, but several recent contributions deal with missions that operated following the independence of most Latin American countries, and as late as the first decades of the twentieth century. Erick Langer’s study of the Franciscan Chiriguano missions of eastern Bolivia comes to mind (Expecting Pears from an Elm Tree: Franciscan Missions on the Chiriguano Frontier in the Heart of South America, 1830 – 1949, 2009). The author of this book, Pilar García Jordán, has also previously published on the subject of Republican Franciscan missions in eastern Bolivia, in this case among the Guaraya, who live in northern Santa Cruz Department, north of the well-known colonial Chiquitos missions founded at the end...

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