Argentina joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) in 1956—ten years later than all other American nations and only one year after President Juan Perón’s overthrow. This fact has led scholars to conclude that Perón refused to join the Fund and Bank because he considered them to be tools of US imperialism. This article reveals that, contrary to populist depictions of Perón, he made significant efforts to make Argentina a member of the IMF and the World Bank. In effect, between 1946 and 1955 Perón conducted intensive and almost continuous negotiations with the IMF’s and World Bank’s most senior officials. During this period of confidential negotiations, Perón’s economic policies became more flexible and liberal.