Editors Fernando Purcell and Alfredo Riquelme have amassed a number of essays focusing on the international forces that impacted Chile and that nation’s relationship with the world community. Joaquín Fermandois’s excellent study begins this work, noting that Chile, like most nations, is the product of international forces, particularly ideologically. The very notions of independence, republicanism, democracy, as well as later Marxism, and the more modern feminism, often spring from the minds of foreigners. But he warns we should not completely ignore the cultural differences. Instead we should base our work on recognized national entities, the influence of culture, and finally distinguish between international and intranational relations.

Rafael Sagredo affirms this thesis, showing how European scientists came to Chile essentially to inventory its resources and discover the limits of this distant land. Perhaps the best example of these scholars is Claudio Gay, who arrived...

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