Both Bolivia and Ecuador have long been home to strong and well-organized social movements that have repeatedly challenged elite domination of state structures. Based on extensive field research and probing participant observation spread out over the past decade, together with a broad reading of the social science literature, this book by political scientist José Antonio Lucero examines recent indigenous movements in these two Andean countries to examine how representative voices in social movements are constructed. Lucero raises two key questions: why are some movements more unified than others, and why are some voices more representative than others?

Lucero frames his discussion of representation in the context of parallel electoral campaigns in Bolivia and Ecuador. In 2005, Evo Morales won the presidency of Bolivia with a historic majority of the vote. The following year, longtime Ecuadorian indigenous leader Luis Macas polled a dismal 2...

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