Excluir para ser is a slim book that ponders what it means to be “elite” in colonial Spanish America. Far from reaching a unified definition, the editors and contributors present several case studies of principal and secondary elites, illustrating their ethnic, economic, social, and political networks. In their introduction, Christian Büschges and Frédérique Langue express their desire to consider elites as not a single entity or the reflection of socioeconomic and political structures but rather through “the concrete actions by which social groups are made, changed, and differentiated from one another” (p. 12). At heart is a process of identification that is exclusionary but nevertheless allows for the questioning of social frontiers and the incorporation of new elements. Common themes uniting the elites, and these essays, are their economic activities (of important miners, agricultural producers, and merchants) and their attitudes and behavior (marriage...

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