During a 1947 national radio broadcast, Argentine president Juan Domingo Perón explained to his listeners why the prices of goods at local shops and street markets were climbing higher. Perón noted that inflation was a worldwide problem in the postwar period, but he condemned in particular the “egotism, greediness, lack of human solidarity, and absence of patriotism” of certain Argentine business owners. “They are the ones,” the president exclaimed, “who stir up the river to reap gains as fishermen, who lay the foundations for black markets, who speculate and profit from the labor and blood of the immense majority of inhabitants.”1 Perón’s moralistic distinction between the virtuous, laboring pueblo and a cabal of greedy adversaries seems familiar enough. Scholars have emphasized the importance of this type of political discourse in populist movements, and leaders like Perón are famed for their impassioned attacks...

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