As part of the effort to locate emergent nations, this study by Tamar Herzog endeavors to explain the remote sociopolitical category of citizenship for the seventeenth and eighteenth century by focusing on immigrants and their integration into local communities via the process of naturalization. Drawing upon 3,500 cases uncovered in a wide array of archives, she equates citizenship with vecindad and naturalization within communities to naturaleza—the process of acquiring “nativeness.” We are told that neither of these two pillars, on which the entire study rests, can be related to notions of identity but instead pertained to the identification of foreigners (“bad” immigrants) and Spaniards (“good” immigrants) by local communities. Herzog argues that this was a persistent aspect of empire that could even trump royal authority. While integration into local communities was, by extension, critical to becoming part of a larger entity (defined throughout as “the community of the kingdom”),...

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