Ni aniquilados ni vencidos is a modest but welcome contribution to the literature on the peoples of the little-studied region of the Chocó province of Citará (Emberá). This was a crucially important gold-producing region within the viceroyalty of New Granada, but indigenous resistance delayed effective Spanish occupation until the end of the seventeenth century, at which point large numbers of slaves— creole and African—were brought in to exploit gold deposits. Based largely on sources held in the Archivo General de la Nación and focusing mainly on the eighteenth century, the study “aims to describe and analyze the process of Spanish colonization of the upper and middle reaches of the Atrato River” and its impact upon the Indian and black peoples who comprised the vast majority of the population (p. 13). As the author acknowledges, however, the study is limited both by its scope—few...

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