sarah c. chambers is associate professor of history at the University of Minnesota. She is the author of From Subjects to Citizens: Honor, Gender, and Politics in Arequipa, Peru, 1780–1854 (1999) and articles on legal history during the transition from the colonial to republican period in Peru. Her current research focuses on gender relations and ideologies in Spanish South America around the time of independence.

jeffrey d. needell is an associate professor at the University of Florida, where he has taught Brazilian history since 1987. He is the author of A Tropical Belle Epoque: Elite Culture and Society in Turn-of-the-Century Rio de Janeiro (1987) and has published several articles on Brazilian and Argentine urban and cultural history as well as Brazilian conservative political and social thought. The article in this issue introduces research he is just completing for a book on the state,...

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