Ñawpaq (first): This is an extraordinary book. It is easily readable even for the non-mathematically inclined and non-Andeanists. It deals with issues of why one counts, what is counted, and how arithmetic operations are used in social life. Drawings, diagrams, and tables allow for the easy perusal of the material, and the profusion of examples facilitate understanding. The material comes from wonderful ethnographic fieldwork in southern Bolivia, conducted with exquisite linguistic skills by anthropologist Gary Urton paired up with Primitivo Nina Llanos, a professor of Quechua at the University of Sucre.

Iskayñaken (second): It is also a deeply philosophical work, delving into the underlying logic and principles involved in Quechua ways with numbers. It argues that Andean civilization scores high on numeracy, but low on literacy (lacking a writing system). Discussing ordinal numbers, Urton introduces the prototypical model of an ordinal sequence, derived from the social relations of a mother...

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