In 1961, the Brazilian government ratified the creation of the Xingu National Park, an area of roughly 22,000 square kilometers in the central-western state of Mato Grosso. The expansive federal territory, later renamed the Xingu Indigenous Park, was then home to some one dozen different Indigenous groups. At the time, the park was a historical anomaly. Most Indigenous territories in 1960s Brazil were not officially recognized. Those reserved were undersized, reflecting policymakers' repudiation of Indigenous autonomy and noncapitalist forms of land use. Yet despite or, more accurately, because of the conceits of Brazilian developmentalism, an extensive park devoted to Indigenous and environmental protection emerged in the name of national patrimony, scientific advancement, and defense of Native peoples' constitutional rights. The Xingu Indigenous Park clearly testifies to the cultural resilience of Brazil's Indigenous populations and the progressivism of non-Indigenous allies. Among these advocates,...

You do not currently have access to this content.