Zeb Tortorici explains that gender and sex were defined in colonial Latin America according to bodily designations. Drawing on the growing field of early modern science studies, the editor and the nine contributors work to explain how distinctions between natural and unnatural ordered inhabitants of the Iberian Americas. The volume, as a whole, asks how colonial authorities and church officials described people who did not present as gender normative or engage in procreative sexual activities, heteronormative marriage arrangements, and patriarchal ordering of family.

Turning away from a recovery of gay history to understand how queer sex worked within theological conceptions of sin, the chapters as a whole communicate why bestiality (as explored in Mílada Bazant's chapter), incest, sodomy, and masturbation were considered unnatural acts in the colonial era. In his riveting contribution, Martín Bowen Silva argues that a Chilean elite cataloged his...

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