The historical narrative of the Spanish colonization of the Americas is generally framed by the notion that not enough peninsular women emigrated to the New World. White women were believed to be able to tame the violence of Spanish men, provide condoned outlets for their sexual desires, and produce and properly Hispanize successive generations of Spanish children. The supposed failure of European women to participate in colonization efforts left many colonies untenable and left native women vulnerable to Spanish male sexual aggression. In order to rethink peninsular women's roles in colonization, we must reconsider this judgment that there were not enough women, which scholars have assumed because there were never equal numbers of male and female emigrants. However, significant numbers of peninsular women did make the Atlantic crossing. In her new book, Amelia Almorza Hidalgo pieces together an array of quantitative and...

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