After the Revolution of 1933, the Cuban Communist Party reflected an intersection of labor organizers, members of prestigious black fraternal organizations, and the intelligentsia—groups that have previously been framed as distinct bodies of black political activism. I argue that the Communist Party successfully reintroduced critical discussions of racial discrimination on the island during the 1939 Club Atenas colloquium and the 1940 constitutional assembly. Public engagement with race and discrimination had previously been silenced due to the island's famous rhetoric of a raceless nation, created by the writings of José Martí and enforced during the Race War of 1912. Between the Revolution of 1933 and the constitution of 1940, the political landscape of Cuba transformed dramatically. As the traditional two-party system splintered, the Communist Party coalesced to establish themselves as a unique site for black political leadership and operated as the island's most outspoken critic of racial discrimination.

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