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war grades

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Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2018) 65 (3): 373–389.
Published: 01 July 2018
... of comparative analysis.” John Swanton understood clearly that there is much we may never know about the Creek matrilineal system. Just as the Creek war-grade system had collapsed after the Removal, the matriliclan system, too, was strongly in decline at the time his field work began. 7 He stated...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2009) 56 (4): 549–567.
Published: 01 October 2009
... in their respective cohorts. Bichea was born about 1851, at a time when Arapahos were heavily involved in intertribal wars. The men’s society organization was age graded; that is, it was divided into five groups, each of which had a membership in the same age range. The oldest men had ceremonial...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (2): 229–261.
Published: 01 April 2011
... and expanding their ranges. Coordinated movement for hunts, defense, trade, and war parties became even greater priorities of the Arapaho cere- monial authority of elders and became new functions of the age grade sys- tem. The roles of the men’s age grade societies in battle and hunting became more...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2001) 48 (4): 689–712.
Published: 01 October 2001
...) and subsequently modified by local 1 language specialists. As I recall, Victoria Sun Rhodes, Jean Slattery, Anita Portwood, Joseph Goggles, Hubert Warren (and his wife), Robert War- ren...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2014) 61 (1): 99–122.
Published: 01 January 2014
... that includes oral genres (counting coup) and pictographic genres (warrior robes, war shirts, and tepee covers and liners).7 Among the Blackfoot First Nations—the Pikuni, Kainai, and Siksika— ai sinakinax maintained winter counts “in the head” until, at an unrecorded juncture, they began drawing...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2003) 50 (4): 697–705.
Published: 01 October 2003
... as other events. Most entries refer to the locations where the Mandan and Hidatsa wintered. As analyzed by Marian Smith (1960), years are often addition- ally defined in terms of births and other age-grading, such as war...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2004) 51 (4): 725–750.
Published: 01 October 2004
...William A. Starna; José António Brandão American Society for Ethnohistory 2004 From the Mohawk-Mahican War to the Beaver Wars: Questioning the Pattern William A. Starna, State University of New York, College at Oneonta José António Brandão, Western Michigan University...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2013) 60 (3): 419–438.
Published: 01 July 2013
... was among the few who studied Russian culture in Siberia during the first decades of the twentieth century (Sirina 1993). It was only after Word War II that “Russian” groups inside and outside Russia received more and more scholarly attention in the anthropological literature. Old-Settler commu...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 738–739.
Published: 01 October 2011
...Joshua Piker The Second Creek War: Interethnic Conflict and Collusion on a Collapsing Frontier . By Ellisor John T. . ( Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press , 2010 . vi + 497 pp., introduction, maps, bibliography, index . $50.00 cloth.) Copyright 2011 by American Society...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 727–728.
Published: 01 October 2011
... and records written by non-Salish people. His focus is on the Salish people’s willingness to adhere and adapt, physically and culturally, to changing times in their homeland. He suggests two hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 729–731.
Published: 01 October 2011
... with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because of the lack of direct evidence compiled by Bitterroot Salish...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 731–733.
Published: 01 October 2011
... with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because of the lack of direct evidence compiled by Bitterroot Salish...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 733–734.
Published: 01 October 2011
... hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 734–736.
Published: 01 October 2011
... hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 736–737.
Published: 01 October 2011
..., to changing times in their homeland. He suggests two hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 739–740.
Published: 01 October 2011
... hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 741–743.
Published: 01 October 2011
... hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 746–748.
Published: 01 October 2011
... hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 748–749.
Published: 01 October 2011
... hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2011) 58 (4): 750–751.
Published: 01 October 2011
... hypotheses for their survival: keeping the peace with the white settlers to avoid a destructive war; and the expansion of Salish farms and herds in an attempt to protect and diversify their economic base once the bu¤alo herds had reached the point of near extinction in the 1880s. Because...