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Treaty Four

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Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2022) 69 (2): 137–161.
Published: 01 April 2022
... and the length of its implementation. Through the examination of four case studies, the article shows how the pass system was applied indiscriminately, disrupting not only the free movement of First Nations people but also their governance structures. Finally, the article suggests that many Treaty Four people...
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Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2021) 68 (2): 215–236.
Published: 01 April 2021
... : 74). But the Ojibwe People survived, and their commitment to their homelands led to the revocation of the removal order and another treaty that guaranteed access to their homeland—the Treaty of La Pointe in 1854. In 1854, at least four thousand Anishinaabeg gathered at La Pointe to discuss...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2023) 70 (3): 279–301.
Published: 01 July 2023
... of California Press . Norman John , and Coles John . 1785 . “ An Accurate Map of the Four New England States .” Boston : Norman B. Leventhal Map and Education Center . https://web.archive.org/web/20201028164148/https://collections.leventhalmap.org/search/commonwealth:3f462x889...
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Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2022) 69 (2): 233–234.
Published: 01 April 2022
... to forfeit Indigenous lands to the Canadian government. Krasowski points out that in four of the seven sets of treaty negotiations, despite the centrality of land surrender to the Canadian government’s goals, the surrender clause never appeared in recorded translations or proceedings. The swiftness...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2017) 64 (2): 191–215.
Published: 01 April 2017
... distancing the present negotiations from the tragedy of Fallen Timbers, Tarhe’s aim may have been to bring recalcitrant delegates to where they would accept the terms he anticipated from Wayne. First, however, Tarhe presented four large “mixed belts,” presumably earlier treaty belts, adduced as a mnemonic...
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Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2020) 67 (1): 29–48.
Published: 01 January 2020
... annuities on many occasions, recounted the feasting and dancing that typically followed a treaty’s payment: “old men sat in groups of three or four, telling stories,” women within tents prepared food purchased from traders, and husbands called everyone to partake throughout the day and night. Celebrations...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2004) 51 (3): 459–488.
Published: 01 July 2004
... Confederacy were dis- persed, with communities established in Wisconsin and Canada as well as in New York State. The Seneca, for the most part, remained in western New York for much of the period under review, living on four reservations— Buffalo Creek, Tonawanda, Cattaraugus, and Allegany. Morgan’s...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2013) 60 (3): 451–467.
Published: 01 July 2013
... to an observation made by Chief Edward Hardisty (as a four-year-­ ­old child he was present at the negotiations), who was then chief at Wrigley and who acted as my translator. As Fumoleau makes clear, the government of Canada chose to negoti- ate a treaty in 1921 principally to extinguish any Dene...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2010) 57 (1): 11–33.
Published: 01 January 2010
... and in eastern Ontario). In these latter cases, the artists often draw attention to the three-toed track mark of the crane by exaggerating the size of the foot relative to the size of the bird. Both the crane and the heron have four toes on each foot, but the fourth or rear toe of the crane seldom fully...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2006) 53 (3): 622–623.
Published: 01 July 2006
... Anthropolo- gists classify them as Upland Yuman, linguistically related to the Pa’a peoples—the Havasupai and Hualapai—but the Yavapai consider them- selves a unique people composed of four groups (the Tolkepaya, Yavapé, Wipukepa, and Kwevkepaya) organized in bands with distinctive identities...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2018) 65 (3): 417–440.
Published: 01 July 2018
... the shorelines. I asked Sam whether he remembered the Treaty Day in Osnaburgh when he was a child: Yes, I remember. Every year. It was in [the] last week of June. . . . The Treaty Party people came in to give people four dollars to each one of us. Everybody used to gather around Hudson’s Bay post. It must...
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Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2013) 60 (4): 605–635.
Published: 01 October 2013
... an alliance with Oglethorpe and used it to secure a place in the influential Creek Confederacy, which lay just west of Yamacraw and Savannah, the new Georgian settlement. One year later, the micco journeyed some four thousand miles across the Atlantic to London, where he became a client...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2016) 63 (4): 621–643.
Published: 01 October 2016
... by treaty right, had been favorite places to live prior to European arrival. By the nineteenth century the movement of people made these communities distinct. In the fall of 1825 one visitor to Old Town Island learned that “in the spring and fall the tribe, which consists perhaps of three or four hundred...
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Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2021) 68 (3): 429–448.
Published: 01 July 2021
... avenues to manhood, warfare and hunting, were becoming increasingly narrow. In the latter half of the eighteenth century, the Cherokee and Creek finally established peace with each other after approximately four decades of war. Around the same time, Britain achieved hegemony across large areas of North...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2006) 53 (3): 617–618.
Published: 01 July 2006
...Caskey Russell Voices from Four Directions: Contemporary Translations of the Native Literatures of North America. Edited by Brian Swann. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004. xxii + 617 pp., introduction, translations, list of contributors, index. $27.50 paper.) 2006 Book Reviews...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2007) 54 (4): 605–637.
Published: 01 October 2007
..., Missouri, Pawnee, Sioux, and Sac hunters, and game declined accordingly.50 Four years before the 1815 treaty, Indian agent Nicholas Boilvin had reported that the Sac, Fox, and Iowa have “abandoned the chase, except to furnish themselves with meat,” indicating the growing scarcity of game...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2006) 53 (3): 618–620.
Published: 01 July 2006
... related to the Pa’a peoples—the Havasupai and Hualapai—but the Yavapai consider them- selves a unique people composed of four groups (the Tolkepaya, Yavapé, Wipukepa, and Kwevkepaya) organized in bands with distinctive identities and homelands. For centuries these groups occupied central Arizona, from...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2006) 53 (3): 620–621.
Published: 01 July 2006
...—but the Yavapai consider them- selves a unique people composed of four groups (the Tolkepaya, Yavapé, Wipukepa, and Kwevkepaya) organized in bands with distinctive identities and homelands. For centuries these groups occupied central Arizona, from the Colorado River to the Verde River and from Big Williams...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2006) 53 (3): 623–625.
Published: 01 July 2006
...- gists classify them as Upland Yuman, linguistically related to the Pa’a peoples—the Havasupai and Hualapai—but the Yavapai consider them- selves a unique people composed of four groups (the Tolkepaya, Yavapé, Wipukepa, and Kwevkepaya) organized in bands with distinctive identities and homelands...
Journal Article
Ethnohistory (2006) 53 (3): 625–628.
Published: 01 July 2006
..., University of Arizona The Yavapai call themselves yavpáy, which means ‘‘people Anthropolo- gists classify them as Upland Yuman, linguistically related to the Pa’a peoples—the Havasupai and Hualapai—but the Yavapai consider them- selves a unique people composed of four groups (the Tolkepaya, Yavapé...