This article analyzes the violent deaths of two Jesuit missionaries in the regions of Marajó (Pará) and the Itapecuru River (Maranhão). Their tragic end serves as a starting point through which one can explore the social relations that took place between Europeans and native peoples on the Amazonian frontier during the mid-seventeenth century. Although colonial records suggest the presence of inevitable conflicts and cultural division within these regions, this article instead emphasizes the long-standing communication between Europeans and natives at the frontier. Their multifaceted interactions included violence and negotiations for peace, a social dynamic that is also explored in this article in order to offer new insights on the deaths of the Jesuit missionaries.

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