Between the 1660s and the 1680s the Spanish Crown launched a major campaign to end the enslavement of Indians throughout its far-flung empire. Using this momentous crusade as a point of departure, this article identifies the principal slaving grounds of the Spanish empire in the second half of the seventeenth century; examines the participation of royal officials, colonists, and Native Americans during this protracted campaign; and provides an empire-wide view of the phenomenon of Indian slavery as well as the tremendous difficulties of emancipating the Native slaves.

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